Sr2 is the only known durable, race non-specific adult plant stem rust resistance gene in wheat. The Sr2 gene was shown to be tightly linked to the leaf rust resistance gene Lr27 and to powdery mildew resistance. An analysis of recombinants and mutants suggests that a single gene on chromosome arm 3BS may be responsible for resistance to these three fungal pathogens. The resistance functions of the Sr2 locus are compared and contrasted with those of the adult plant resistance gene Lr34.
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The recent emergence of wheat stem rust Ug99 and evolution of new races within the lineage threatens global wheat production because they overcome widely deployed stem rust resistance (Sr) genes that had been effective for many years. To identify loci conferring adult plant resistance to races of Ug99 in wheat, we employed an association mapping approach for 276 current spring wheat breeding lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Breeding lines were genotyped with Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and microsatellite markers. Phenotypic data was collected on these lines for stem rust race Ug99 resistance at the adult plant stage in the stem rust resistance screening nursery in Njoro, Kenya in seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010. Fifteen marker loci were found to be significantly associated with stem rust resistance. Several markers appeared to be linked to known Sr genes, while other significant markers were located in chromosome regions where no Sr genes have been previously reported. Most of these new loci colocalized with QTLs identified recently in different biparental populations. Using the same data and Q + K covariate matrices, we investigated the interactions among marker loci using linear regression models to calculate P values for pairwise marker interactions. Resistance marker loci including the Sr2 locus on 3BS and the wPt1859 locus on 7DL had significant interaction effects with other loci in the same chromosome arm and with markers on chromosome 6B. Other resistance marker loci had significant pairwise interactions with markers on different chromosomes. Based on these results, we propose that a complex network of gene-gene interactions is, in part, responsible for resistance to Ug99. Further investigation may provide insight for understanding mechanisms that contribute to this resistance gene network.
This study reports the discovery and molecular mapping of a resistance gene effective against stem rust races RKQQC and TTKSK (Ug99) derived from Aegilops geniculata. Two populations from the crosses TA5599 (T5DL-5MgLÂ·5MgS)/TA3809 (ph1b mutant in Chinese Spring background) and TA5599/Lakin were developed and used for genetic mapping to identify markers linked to the resistance gene. Further molecular and cytogenetic characterization resulted in the identification of nine spontaneous recombinants with shortened Ae. geniculata segments. Three of the wheat-Ae. geniculata recombinants (U6154-124, U6154-128, and U6200-113) are interstitial translocations (T5DSÂ·5DL-5MgL-5DL), with 20-30% proximal segments of 5MgL translocated to 5DL; the other six are recombinants (T5DL-5MgLÂ·5MgS) have shortened segments of 5MgL with fraction lengths (FL) of 0.32-0.45 compared with FL 0.55 for the 5MgL segment in the original translocation donor, TA5599. Recombinants U6200-64, U6200-117, and U6154-124 carry the stem rust resistance gene Sr53 with the same infection type as TA5599, the resistance gene donor. All recombinants were confirmed to be genetically compensating on the basis of genomic in situ hybridization and molecular marker analysis with chromosome 5D- and 5Mg-specific SSR/STS-PCR markers. These recombinants between wheat and Ae. geniculata will provide another source for wheat stem rust resistance breeding and for physical mapping of the resistance locus and crossover hot spots between wheat chromosome 5D and chromosome 5MgL of Ae. geniculata.
Abstract A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross Arina/Forno was field tested for 2 years against Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici under artificially created epidemic conditions. Both parents showed intermediate adult plant stem rust responses and the RIL population showed continuous variation for this trait. Composite interval mapping identified genomic regions controlling low stem rust response on chromosomes 5B and 7D consistently across all experiments. These genomic regions were named QSr.Sun-5BL and QSr.Sun-7DS and explained on an average 12% and 26% of the phenotypic variation in adult plant stem rust response, respectively. QSr.Sun-5BL mapped close to Xglk0354 and was contributed by Arina. The Lr34-linked markers csLV34 and swm10 were closely associated with QSr.Sun-7DS suggesting the involvement of Lr34 in controlling adult plant stem rust response of cultivar Forno. Additional minor and inconsistent QTLs explaining variation in adult plant stem rust response were identified on chromosome arms 1AS and 7BL. The QTL located on chromosome 7BL corresponded to the stem rust resistance gene Sr17 carried by cultivar Forno. A seedling stem rust resistance gene carried by Arina, SrAn1, was ineffective under field conditions and was mapped on the long arm of chromosome 2A. Genotypes carrying combinations of QSr.Sun-5BL and QSr.Sun-7DS based on positive alleles of the respective closest marker loci Xglk0354 and XcsLV34 or Xswm10 exhibited a lower response than either parent indicating an additive effect of these genes. Transfer of these genes into cultivars carrying Sr2 would provide a more effective and durable resistance against the stem rust pathogen. Markers csLV34 and/or swm10 could be used in marker assisted selection of QSr.Sun-7DS in breeding programs.
The action of the gene Sr6 for stem rust resistance in wheat is affected by temperature, light, and the particular susceptible parent with which a line carrying Sr6 has been crossed. Two experiments were carried out to deter-mine whether the effect of the susceptible parents was due to modifier genes, the general genetic background, or interallelic interactions. The data indicated that the susceptible parents carried different sr6 alleles that interacted with Sr6, possibly in a paramutation-like process. In the course of the study, a number of anomalous results were obtained that may be due to the action of transposable elements.
The use of major resistance genes is a cost-effective strategy for preventing stem rust epidemics in wheat crops. The stem rust resistance gene Sr39 provides resistance to all currently known pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) including Ug99 (TTKSK) and was introgressed together with leaf rust resistance gene Lr35 conferring adult plant resistance to P. triticina (Pt), into wheat from Aegilops speltoides. It has not been used extensively in wheat breeding because of the presumed but as yet undocumented negative agronomic effects associated with Ae. speltoides chromatin. This investigation reports the production of a set of recombinants with shortened Ae. speltoides segments through induction of homoeologous recombination between the wheat and the Ae. speltoides chromosome. Simple PCR-based DNA markers were developed for resistant and susceptible genotypes (Sr39#22r and Sr39#50s) and validated across a set of recombinant lines and wheat cultivars. These markers will facilitate the pyramiding of ameliorated sources of Sr39 with other stem rust resistance genes that are effective against the Pgt pathotype TTKSK and its variants.
Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. A new race of the pathogen named TTKSK (syn. Ug99) and its derivatives detected in East Africa are virulent to many designated and undesignated stem rust resistance genes. The emergence and spread of those races pose an imminent threat to wheat production worldwide. Genes Sr25 and Sr26 transferred into wheat from Thinopyrum ponticum are effective against these new races. DNA markers for Sr25 and Sr26 are needed to pyramid both genes into adapted germplasm. The previously published dominant markers Gb for Sr25 and Sr26#43 for Sr26 were validated with eight wheat lines with or without Sr25 or Sr26. We tested six published STS (sequence tagged site) markers amplifying diagnostic bands of Th. ponticum. Marker BF145935 consistently amplified well and can be used as a co-dominant marker for Sr25. Among 16 STS markers developed from wheat ESTs mapped to deletion bin 6AL8-0.90-1.00, none was co-dominant for tagging Sr26. However, five 6A-specific markers were identified. Multiplex PCR with marker Sr26#43 and 6A-specific marker BE518379 can be used as a co-dominant marker for Sr26. The co-dominant markers for Sr25 and Sr26 were validated with 37 lines with known stem rust resistance genes. A diverse set of germplasm consisting 170 lines from CIMMYT, China, USA and other counties were screened with the co-dominant markers for Sr25 and Sr26. Five lines with the diagnostic fragment for Sr25 were identified, and they all have Ã¢â‚¬ËœWheatearÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ in their pedigrees, which is known to carry Sr25. None of the 170 lines tested had Sr26, as expected.
New races of wheat stem rust, namely TTKSK (Ug99) and its variants, pose a threat to wheat production in the regions where they are found. The accession of the wheat cultivar Webster (RL6201) maintained at the Cereal Research Centre in Winnipeg, Canada, shows resistance to TTKSK and other races of stem rust. The purpose of this study was to study the inheritance of seedling resistance to stem rust in RL6201 and genetically map the resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. A population was produced by crossing the stem rust susceptible line RL6071 with Webster. The F(2) and F(3) were tested with TPMK, a stem rust race native to North America. The F(3) was also tested with TTKSK. Two independently assorting genes were identified in RL6201. Resistance to TPMK was conferred by Sr30, which was mapped with microsatellites on chromosome 5DL. The second gene, temporarily designated SrWeb, conferred resistance to TTKSK. SrWeb was mapped to chromosome 2BL using SSR markers. Comparison with previous genetic maps showed that SrWeb occupies a locus near Sr9. Further analysis will be required to determine if SrWeb is a new gene or an allele of a previously identified gene.
Stem rust resistance gene Sr22 transferred to common wheat from Triticum boeoticum and T. monococcum remains effective against commercially prevalent pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, including Ug99 and its derivatives. Sr22 was previously located on the long arm of chromosome 7A. Several backcross derivatives (hexaploid) possessing variable sized Sr22-carrying segments were used in this study to identify a closely linked DNA marker. Expressed sequenced tags belonging to the deletion bin 7AL-0.74-0.86, corresponding to the genomic location of Sr22 were screened for polymorphism. In addition, RFLP markers that mapped to this region were targeted. Initial screening was performed on the resistant and susceptible DNA bulks obtained from backcross derivatives carrying Sr22 in three genetic backgrounds with short T. boeoticum segments. A cloned wheat genomic fragment, csIH81, that detected RFLPs between the resistant and susceptible bulks, was converted into a sequence tagged site (STS) marker, named cssu22. Validation was performed on Sr22 carrying backcross-derivatives in fourteen genetic backgrounds and other genotypes used for marker development. Marker cssu22 distinguished all backcross-derivatives from their respective recurrent parents and co-segregated with Sr22 in a Schomburgk (+Sr22)/Yarralinka (-Sr22)-derived recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Sr22 was also validated in a second population, Sr22TB/Lakin-derived F(4) selected families, containing shortened introgressed segments that showed recombination with previously reported flanking microsatellite markers.
Stem rust resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) conferred by the Sr2 gene has remained effective against Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. U sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. worldwide for more than 50 yr. Sr2 resistance is associated with variable levels of disease symptoms; it shows recessive inheritance and is expressed primarily during the adult-plant stage. A genetic and physical interval for the Sr2 gene was determined on the short arm of chromosome 3B of wheat. Flanking microsatellite markers were identified and one tightly linked marker (gwm533) was shown to be associated with presence of Sr2. This marker was validated in a wide range of germplasm and can now be implemented in marker-assisted breeding to facilitate selection for this durable, broad-spectrum but difficult to score rust resistance gene.