Widely virulent races of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) such as those isolated from Africa (e.g., TTKSK, isolate synonym Ug99) threaten wheat production worldwide. To identify Aegilops accessions with effective resistance to such virulent stem rust races, up to 10 different species from Israel were evaluated against African races TTKSK, TTKST, and TTTSK and the Israeli race TTTTC as seedlings in the greenhouse. A wide diversity of stem rust reactions was observed across the Aegilops spp. and ranged from highly resistant (i.e., infection type 0) to highly susceptible (infection type 4). The frequency of resistance within a species to races TTTTC and TTKSK ranged from 7 and 14%, respectively, in Aegilops searsii to 98 and 100% in AE. speltoides. In all, 346 accessions were found resistant to the three African races and 138 accessions were resistant (or heterogeneous with a resistant component) to all four races. The species with broadly resistant accessions included Ae. longissima (59 accessions), Ae. peregrina (47 accessions), Ae. sharonensis (15 accessions), Ae. geniculata (9 accessions), Ae. kotschyi (5 accessions), and Ae. bicornis (3 accessions). Few geographical trends or correlations with climatic variables were observed with respect to stem rust resistance in the Aegilops spp. The exception was Ae. longissima infected with race TTTTC, where a high frequency of resistance was found in central and northern Israel and a very low frequency in southern Israel (Negev desert region). This geographical trend followed a pattern of annual precipitation in Israel, and a significant correlation was found between this variable and resistance in Ae. longissima. Although difficult, it is feasible to transfer resistance genes from Aegilops spp. into wheat through conventional wide-crossing schemes or, alternatively, a cloning and transformation approach. The broadly resistant accessions identified in this study will be valuable in these research programs.
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Wild relatives of common wheat, Triticum aestivum, and related species are an important source of disease and pest resistance and several useful traits have been transferred from these species to wheat. C-banding and in situ hybridization analyses are powerful cytological techniques allowing the detection of alien chromatin in wheat. C-banding permits identification of the wheat and alien chromosomes involved in wheat-alien translocations, whereas genomic in situ hybridization analysis allows determination of their size and breakpoint positions. The present review summarizes the available data on wheat-alien transfers conferring resistance to diseases and pests. Ten of the 57 spontaneous and induced wheat-alien translocations were identified as whole arm translocations with the breakpoints within the centromeric regions. The majority of transfers (45) were identified as terminal translocations with distal alien segments translocated to wheat chromosome arms. Only two intercalary wheat-alien transloctions were identified, one induced by radiation treatment with a small segment of rye chromosome 6RL (H25) inserted into the long arm of wheat chromosome 4A, and the other probably induced by homoeologous recombination with a segment derived from the long arm of a group 7 Agropyron elongatum chromosome with Lr19 inserted into the long arm of 7D. The presented information should be useful for further directed chromosome engineering aimed at producing superior germplasm.
Two procedures were used to induce homoeologous recombination between Agropyron elongatum (Host) Beauv. chromosome 7el2 and wheat chromosomes. One procedure involved the use of 'Chinese Spring' nullisomic 5B – tetrasomic 5D, and resulted in plants lacking chromosome 5B. In the second procedure, a line carrying the mutant gene ph1b was used, and plants were produced that had only a 5B chromosome carrying ph1b. Both procedures resulted in the transfer of a gene or genes for stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici Eriks. and Henn.) resistance from chromosome 7el2 to wheat chromosomes. During the transfer process, it was discovered that both the whole Agropyron chromosome and the recombinant chromosomes showed preferential transmission through the female gametes, but not through the male gametes. On heterozygous plants seed set was greatly reduced. Apparently, the Agropyron chromosome or a gene carried by it had a gametocidal action that resulted in female gametes, which did not carry the gene, failing to function. However, homozygous lines showed normal fertility.
The Triticum aestivum L. cultivar ‘Waldron’ has long lasting resistance to most North American stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) isolates. The objective of this research was to develop wheat lines monogenic for resistance to stem rust from ‘Waldron’ using allelism tests and tests for reaction to a series of ten stem rust cultures having a range of virulences. Twelve lines homozygous for single resistance genes were selected as parents of a diallel cross to test for allelism among genes for resistance. We identified 6 lines or groups of lines (WDR-A1, the WDR-B1 and WDR-B2 group, the WDR-C1 and WDR-C2 group, WDR-D1, the WDR-E1, WDR-E2, WDR-E3, and WDR-E4 group, and WDR-F1) that carried different single genes for resistance from ‘Waldron’. A seventh line (WDR-G1) probably has two genes for resistance, one in common with WDR-C1 and WDR-C2. The gene in the WDR-E group is probably the same as SrWld1, and the one in WDR-F1 the same as Sri11. ‘Waldron’ probably has two or more genes for resistance to stem rust that previous genetic studies did not detect.
More than 80 % of the worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) area is currently sown with varieties susceptible to the Ug99 race group of stem rust fungus. However, wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk, and Ripper have demonstrated Ug99 resistance at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations derived from crosses of a susceptible parent with each of the resistant lines. The segregation of resistance in each population indicated the presence of a single gene. The resistance gene in Niini mapped to short arm of chromosome 6D and was flanked by SSR markers Xcfd49 at distances of 3.9 cM proximal and Xbarc183 8.4 cM distal, respectively. The chromosome location of this resistance was validated in three other populations: PBW343/Coni, PBW343/Tinkio, and Cacuke/Pfunye. Resistance initially postulated to be conferred by the SrTmp gene in Blouk and Ripper was also linked to Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 on 6DS, but it was mapped proximal to Xbarc183 at a similar position to previously mapped genes Sr42 and SrCad. Based on the variation in diagnostic marker alleles, it is possible that Niini and Pfunye may carry different resistance genes/alleles. Further studies are needed to determine the allelic relationships between various genes located on chromosome arm 6DS. Our results provide valuable molecular marker and genetic information for developing Ug99 resistant wheat varieties in diverse germplasm and using these markers to tag the resistance genes in wheat breeding.
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is a devastating disease of wheat. The emergence of race TTKSK (Ug99) and new variants in Africa threatens wheat production worldwide. The best method of controlling stem rust is to deploy effective resistance genes in wheat cultivars. Few stem rust resistance (Sr) genes derived from the primary gene pool of wheat confer resistance to TTKSK. Norin 40, which carries Sr42, is resistant to TTKSK and variants TTKST and TTTSK. The goal of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of resistance to Ug99 in Norin 40 and map the Sr gene(s). A doubled haploid (DH) population of LMPG-6/Norin 40 was evaluated for resistance to the race TTKST. Segregation of 248 DH lines fitted a 1:1 ratio (χ 2 1:1= 0.58, p = 0.45), indicating a single gene in Norin 40 conditioned resistance to Ug99. This was confirmed by an independent F2:3 population also derived from the cross LMPG-6/Norin 40 where a 1:2:1 ratio (χ 21:2:1 = 0.69, p = 0.71) was observed following the inoculation with race TTKSK. Mapping with DNA markers located this gene to chromosome 6DS, the known location of Sr42. PCR marker FSD_RSA co-segregated with Sr42, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker BARC183 was closely linked (0.5 cM) to Sr42. A previous study found close linkage between FSD_RSA and SrCad, a temporarily designated gene that also confers resistance to Ug99, thus Sr42 may be the same gene or allelic. Marker FSD_RSA is suitable for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding programs to improve stem rust resistance, including Ug99.
Adult plant resistance (APR) in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici ( Pgt), is desirable because this resistance can be Pgt race non-specific. Resistance derived from cultivar Thatcher can confer high levels of APR to the virulent Pgt race TTKSK (Ug99) when combined with stem rust resistance gene Sr57 ( Lr34). To identify the loci conferring APR in Thatcher, we evaluated 160 RILs derived from Thatcher crossed to susceptible cultivar McNeal for field stem rust reaction in Kenya for two seasons and in St. Paul for one season. All RILs and parents were susceptible as seedlings to race TTKSK. However, adult plant stem rust severities in Kenya varied from 5 to 80%. Composite interval mapping identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL). Three QTL were inherited from Thatcher and one, Sr57, was inherited from McNeal. The markers closest to the QTL peaks were used in an ANOVA to determine the additive and epistatic effects. A QTL on 3BS was detected in all three environments and explained 27-35% of the variation. The peak of this QTL was at the same location as the Sr12 seedling resistance gene effective to race SCCSC. Epistatic interactions were significant between Sr12 and QTL on chromosome arms 1AL and 2BS. Though Sr12 cosegregated with the largest effect QTL, lines with Sr12 were not always resistant. The data suggest that Sr12 or a linked gene, though not effective to race TTKSK alone, confers APR when combined with other resistance loci.
Three linked genes responsible for resistance respectively to stem rust, to leaf rust, and to powdery mildew are located on chromosome 7B of Hope wheat. The gene for stem rust resistance, operative in seedling and adult plant stages, is recessive and is designated Br17. The incompletely dominant gene for resistance to leaf rust, designated Lr14, showed 18% recombination with sr17, whilst in two different crosses recombination estimates of 6·0 and 2·5%, respectively, were obtained for the recessive gene for mildew resistance and Br17. All three genes were found to be present in a high proportion of Hope and H·44 derivatives. The gene Br 1'7 is apparently ineffective in conferring resistance to North American and pre.1954 Australian stem rust strains. Its incorporation into several cultivars selected for resistance to these strains presumably resulted from gene interactions or linkage with genes for resistance to other diseases.
The inheritance of resistance to races 56 and 15B-1L was studied in back-crosses of Hope and H-44 to Marquis. The results indicated that both varieties carry the same three genes. Resistance to race 56 is controlled by two dominant genes, Sr 1 which conditions seedling or physiological resistance and Sr 2 which conditions adult plant resistance. At either the seedling or adult plant stage both genes must be present to provide full resistance to race 56. A single recessive gene, not yet named, provides resistance to race 15B-1L.The gene Sr 1 was transferred from Hope to Marquis by backcrossing and the line was crossed to the Chinese Spring monosomics. The gene proved to be on chromosome 2B (XIII).