The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad-spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in field-grown seedlings. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome-encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or up-regulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings, suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance, although leaf tip necrosis occurred in mature plant flag leaves. Several abiotic stress-response genes were up-regulated in these seedlings in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Increasing day length significantly increased Lr34 seedling resistance. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad-spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat.
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Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common wheat disease worldwide. Developing resistant cultivars through deploying new or pyramiding resistance genes in a suitable line, is the most effective approach to control this disease. However, to stack genes in a genotype, efficient and reliable markers are required. In the present study, F2 plants and their corresponding F3 families from a cross between the resistant line; Thatcher (Tc) Lr18, and the susceptible cultivar ‘Boolani’ were used to map rust resistance gene, Lr18 using SSR markers on chromosome 5BL of hexaploid wheat. The P. triticina pathotype no 15 was used to inoculate plants. Out of 20 primers tested, eight showed polymorphism between the two parents and were subsequently genotyped in the entire F2 population. The markers Xgpw7425 and Xwmc75 flanked the locus at a distance of 0.3 and 1.2 cM, respectively. Analysis of 81 genotypes from different backgrounds with these two markers confirmed their usefulness in screening absence or presence of Lr18. Therefore, these markers can be used for gene postulation and marker-assisted selection (MAS) of this gene in wheat breeding programs in future.
The widely effective and genetically linked rust resistance genes Yr47 and Lr52 have previously been mapped in the short arm of chromosome 5B in two F3 populations (Aus28183/Aus27229 and Aus28187/Aus27229). The Aus28183/Aus27229 F3 population was advanced to generate an F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population to identify markers closely linked with Yr47 and Lr52. Diverse genomic resources including flow-sorted chromosome survey sequence contigs representing the orthologous region in Brachypodium distachyon, the physical map of chromosome arm 5BS, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) located in the 5BS6-0.81-1.00 deletion bin and resistance gene analog contigs of chromosome arm 5BS were used to develop markers to saturate the target region. Selective genotyping was also performed using the iSelect 90 K Infinium wheat SNP assay. A set of SSR, STS, gene-based and SNP markers were developed and genotyped on the Aus28183/Aus27229 RIL population. Yr47 and Lr52 are genetically distinct genes that mapped 0.4 cM apart in the RIL population. The SSR marker sun180 co-segregated with Lr52 and mapped 0.4 cM distal to Yr47. In a high resolution mapping population of 600 F2 genotypes Yr47 and Lr52 mapped 0.2 cM apart and marker sun180 was placed 0.4 cM distal to Lr52. The amplification of a different sun180 amplicon (195 bp) than that linked with Yr47 and Lr52 (200 bp) in 204 diverse wheat genotypes demonstrated its robustness for marker-assisted selection of these genes.
Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of wheat genetic resources and development of segregating populations are pre-requisites for identifying rust resistance genes. The objectives of this study were to assess adult plant resistance (APR) of selected wheat genotypes to leaf rust and stem rust and to develop segregating populations for resistance breeding. Eight selected Kenyan cultivars with known resistance to stem rust, together with local checks were evaluated for leaf rust and stem rust resistance at seedling stage and also across several environments. Selected diagnostic markers were used to determine the presence of known genes. All eight cultivars were crossed with local checks using a bi-parental mating design. Seedling tests revealed that parents exhibited differential infection types against wheat rust races. Cultivars Paka and Popo consistently showed resistant infection types at seedling stage, while Gem, Romany, Pasa, Fahari, Kudu, Ngiri and Kariega varied for resistant and susceptible infection types depending on the pathogen race used. The control cultivars Morocco and McNair consistently showed susceptible infection types as expected. In the field, all cultivars except for Morocco showed moderate to high levels of resistance, indicating the presence of effective resistance genes. Using diagnostic markers, presence of Lr34 was confirmed in Gem, Fahari, Kudu, Ngiri and Kariega, while Sr2 was present in Gem, Romany, Paka and Kudu. Seedling resistance gene, Sr35, was only detected in cultivar Popo. Overall, the study developed 909 F6:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) as part of the nested mating design and are useful genetic resources for further studies and for mapping wheat rust resistance genes.
Lr16 is a widely deployed leaf rust resistance gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that is highly effective against the North American Puccinia triticina population when pyramided with the gene Lr34. Lr16 is a seedling leaf rust resistance gene conditioning an incompatible interaction with a distinct necrotic ring surrounding the uredinium. Lr16 was previously mapped to the telomeric region of the short arm of wheat chromosome 2B. The goals of this study were to develop numerous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the Lr16 region and identify diagnostic gene-specific SNP marker assays for marker-assisted selection (MAS).
Leaf rust (LR) caused by Puccinia triticina, is among the most important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops globally. Deployment of cultivars incorporating genetic resistance, such as adult plant resistance (APR) or all-stage resistance, is considered the most sustainable control method. APR is preferred for durability because it places lower selection pressure on the pathogen and is often polygenic. In the search for new sources of APR, here we explored a diversity panel sourced from the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources. Based on DNA marker screening, 83 of the 300 lines were deemed to carry known APR genes; namely, Lr34, Lr46, and Lr67. Interestingly, lines carrying Lr67 were mostly landraces from India and Pakistan, reconfirming the likely origin of the gene. Rapid phenotypic screening using a method that integrates assessment at both seedling and adult growth stages under accelerated growth conditions (i.e., constant light and controlled temperature) identified 50 lines carrying APR. Levels of APR corresponded well with phenotypes obtained in a field nursery inoculated using the same pathotype (R2 = 0.82). The second year of field testing, using a mixture of pathotypes with additional virulence for race-specific APR genes (Lr13 and Lr37), identified a subset of 13 lines that consistently displayed high levels of APR across years and pathotypes. These lines provide useful sources of resistance for future research. A strategy combining rapid generation advance coupled with phenotyping under controlled conditions could accelerate introgression of these potentially novel alleles into adapted genetic backgrounds.
Three members of the Puccinia genus, P. triticina (Pt), P. striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst), and P. graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), cause the most common and often most significant foliar diseases of wheat. While similar in biology and life cycle, each species is uniquely adapted and specialized. The genomes of Pt and Pst were sequenced and compared to that of Pgt to identify common and distinguishing gene content, to determine gene variation among wheat rust pathogens, other rust fungi and basidiomycetes, and to identify genes of significance for infection. Pt had the largest genome of the three, estimated at 135 Mb with expansion due to mobile elements and repeats encompassing 50.9% of contig bases; by comparison repeats occupy 31.5% for Pst and 36.5% for Pgt. We find all three genomes are highly heterozygous, with Pst (5.97 SNPs/kb) nearly twice the level detected in Pt (2.57 SNPs/kb) and that previously reported for Pgt. Of 1,358 predicted effectors in Pt, 784 were found expressed across diverse life cycle stages including the sexual stage. Comparison to related fungi highlighted the expansion of gene families involved in transcriptional regulation and nucleotide binding, protein modification, and carbohydrate degradation enzymes. Two allelic homeodomain pairs, HD1 and HD2, were identified in each dikaryotic Puccinia species along with three pheromone receptor (STE3) mating-type genes, two of which are likely representing allelic specificities. The HD proteins were active in a heterologous Ustilago maydis mating assay and host induced gene silencing of the HD and STE3 alleles reduced wheat host infection.
Leaf rust is a common disease of wheat, consistently reducing yields in many wheat-growing regions of the world. Although fungicides are commonly applied to wheat in the United States (US), genetic resistance can provide less expensive, yet effective control of the disease. Our objectives were to map leaf rust resistance genes in a large core collection of spring wheat accessions selected from the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service National Small Grains Collection (NSGC), determine whether previously characterized race-nonspecific resistance genes could be identified with our panel, and evaluate the use of targeted panels to identify seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) genes. Association mapping (AM) detected five potentially novel leaf rust resistance loci on chromosomes 2BL, 4AS, and 5DL at the seedling stage, and 2DL and 7AS that conditioned both seedling and adult plant resistance. In addition, ten potentially novel race-nonspecific resistance loci conditioned field resistance and lacked seedling resistance. Analyses of targeted subsets of the accessions identified additional loci not associated with resistance in the complete core panel. Using molecular markers, we also confirmed the presence and effectiveness of the race-nonspecific genes Lr34, Lr46, and Lr67 in our panel. Although most of the accessions in this study were susceptible to leaf rust in field and seedling tests, many resistance loci were identified with AM. Through the use of targeted subset panels, more loci were identified than in the larger core panels alone.
Thirty-seven monogenic lines of wheat carrying single leaf rust genes were evaluated for their
resistance stability to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. at adult plant stage under different field conditions including four
locations i.e. Itay El-Baroud, Sakha and Nubariya Agric. Res. Stations and Shibin El-Kom for three successive
growing seasons i.e. 2011/12, 2012/13, and 2013/14. All plant materials were selected
for this study as derivatives to Thatcher wheat variety. According to the obtained results, the tested Lr genes were divided
into three groups based on the infection type. The first group included the effective genes which included Lr9, Lr18, Lr19 and
Lr28. The second group included genes differentiated in effectiveness, while, the third group included ineffective genes.
According to the stability parameters, only the wheat monogenic line Lr33 was considered stable and widely adapted in its
resistance to leaf rust during the three successive growing seasons.
Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cv. Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.