The emergence of the highly virulent Ug99 race complex of the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. One of the effective genes against the Ug99 race complex is Sr44, which was derived from Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth and D.R. Dewey and mapped to the short arm of 7J (designated 7J#1S) present in the noncompensating T7DS-7J#1L∙7J#1S translocation. Noncompensating wheat-alien translocations are known to cause genomic duplications and deficiencies leading to poor agronomic performance, precluding their direct use in wheat improvement. The present study was initiated to produce compensating wheat-Th. intermedium Robertsonian translocations with Sr44 resistance. One compensating RobT was identified consisting of the wheat 7DL arm translocated to the Th. intermedium 7J#1S arm resulting in T7DL∙7J#1S. The T7DL∙7J#1S stock was designated as TA5657. The 7DL∙7J#1S stock carries Sr44 and has resistance to the Ug99 race complex. This compensating RobT with Sr44 resistance may be useful in wheat improvement. In addition, we identified an unnamed stem rust resistance gene located on the 7J#1L arm that confers resistance not only to Ug99, but also to race TRTTF, which is virulent to Sr44. However, the action of the second gene can be modified by the presence of suppressors in the recipient wheat cultivars.
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Wild relatives of common wheat, Triticum aestivum, and related species are an important source of disease and pest resistance and several useful traits have been transferred from these species to wheat. C-banding and in situ hybridization analyses are powerful cytological techniques allowing the detection of alien chromatin in wheat. C-banding permits identification of the wheat and alien chromosomes involved in wheat-alien translocations, whereas genomic in situ hybridization analysis allows determination of their size and breakpoint positions. The present review summarizes the available data on wheat-alien transfers conferring resistance to diseases and pests. Ten of the 57 spontaneous and induced wheat-alien translocations were identified as whole arm translocations with the breakpoints within the centromeric regions. The majority of transfers (45) were identified as terminal translocations with distal alien segments translocated to wheat chromosome arms. Only two intercalary wheat-alien transloctions were identified, one induced by radiation treatment with a small segment of rye chromosome 6RL (H25) inserted into the long arm of wheat chromosome 4A, and the other probably induced by homoeologous recombination with a segment derived from the long arm of a group 7 Agropyron elongatum chromosome with Lr19 inserted into the long arm of 7D. The presented information should be useful for further directed chromosome engineering aimed at producing superior germplasm.