Stem rust (SR) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) threaten the sustainability of wheat production worldwide. Sr2 is a widely used gene conferring partial, but durable, resistance to SR. Fhb1 confers a significant level of FHB resistance, but is poorly represented in the INIA-Uruguay wheat-breeding program. Sr2 and Fhb1 are linked in repulsion (~3 cM apart) on chromosome 3B. However, lines with Sr2 and Fhb1 in coupling were recently developed at the University of Minnesota, USA (kindly provided by J. Anderson). In order to incorporate Sr2/Fhb1 into Uruguayan elite wheat cultivars the donor line was crossed and backcrossed with four cultivars lacking both genes and expressing an intermediate to low level of resistance to SR and FHB: G?nesis 2375, G?nesis 6.87, INIA Madrugador, and INIA Don Alberto. Genotypes carrying Sr2/Fhb1 were selected using molecular marker UMN10; 250 BC2F1 were obtained for each recurrent parent. BC3F1 plants positive for UMN10 will be selected. The effect of Sr2/Fhb1 on response to SR and FHB in the different genetic backgrounds will be quantified by comparing disease severities of BC3F2 homozygotes with and without the UMN10 marker. Hopefully the introduction of Sr2/Fhb1 will contribute in reducing the risk of SR and FHB in wheat crops in Uruguay.
Primary Author: Raffo, Instituto Nacional de Investigaci?n Agropecuaria (INIA)
Keywords: stem rust
The soils of the entire Sylhet region of Bangladesh are strongly acidic where lands remain fallow during winter season due to scarcity of irrigation water required for rice cultivation. There is a scope of wheat expansion in this region as the water requirement of wheat is less than Boro rice. Field experimens were carried out at South-Surma, Sylhet, in 2012-13 and at FSRD site Jalalpur, Sylhet in 2013-14, in collaboration of WRC and OFRD. BARI examined the response of seven wheat varieties at two levels of lime in split-plot design where lime was applied in main plots and different wheat varieties were grown in sub-plots. The seeds were sown on December 05, 2012 and November 30, 2013 for the growing season of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The wheat varieties used in this study were Shatabdi, Sufi, Sourav, Bijoy, Prodip, BARI GOM 25 and BARI GOM 26. The index of relative performance of each variety in comparison to mean yield of all varieties under the contrast conditions of liming and non-liming was estimated to determine relative adaptability of wheat variety under experimental soil conditions. The result indicated that most of the yield components viz. spikes/m2, thousand grain weight and grain yield of wheat were significantly improved by liming for both the years and locations. There were variations in lime response among the wheat varieties. The index of relative adaptability (IRA%) for yield of BARI GOM 26 and Bijoy was more than 100% for both the years. The result indicated that these two wheat varieties are relatively tolerant to low pH and could be adapted in acidic soil of Sylhet.
Primary Author: Rahman, Wheat Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
Wheat is a major staple food in Pakistan and its production is subject to many yield limiting factors. Among biotic stresses, rusts have been the most devastating. Hence, the development of rust resistant genotype is the ultimate solution. The traditional approach of transferring resistant genes from wheat related species is time-consuming and laborious. It is complicated by the need to perform inoculation tests on plants in segregating populations, also requiring the application of appropriate races. Molecular markers could tag the presence of important resistance genes and allow breeders to identify the resistance genes rapidly and accurately. Therefore, use of molecular markers can help breeder in developing resistant wheat cultivars to minimize yield losses. To harvest the beauty of this system, 60 candidate wheat candidate varieties (included in provincial wheat yield trial) were screened against rusts using linked DNA markers for genes i.e. Lr-34/Yr-18, Lr-46/Yr-29, Lr-28, Lr-19, Sr-2 and Sr-32. Total genomic DNA was isolated and used as template in PCR for the verification of rust resistant genes. The gene Lr-34/Yr-18 was found present in one genotype and absent in 54 genotypes whereas one genotype was observed as heterozygote with respect to this gene. 49 candidate varieties for Lr-46/Yr-29, 03 for Lr-28, 56 for Lr-19, 38 for Sr-2 and 54 for Sr-32 were found positive showing presence of these genes in the new varieties. Missing entries were tested twice but no resistant gene(s) was detected. This information was shared with respective breeding institute to design the future research program. Furthermore, this molecular information was used for rust resistant gene pyramiding work to develop the durable resistance in wheat against rusts and crosses were attempted utilizing high yielding genotypes and genotypes carrying maximum rust resistance genes.
Primary Author: Rahman, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad PAKISTAN
The objective of this study was to characterize seedling and adult plant resistance to all three rusts in a set of 40 bread wheat varieties currently cultivated in Tajikistan. Gene postulation based on multi-pathotype seedling test data and adult plant responses identified Yr2, Yr9, Yr17 and Yr27; Lr10 and Lr26; and Sr5, Sr6, Sr10, Sr11, Sr31 and Sr38. The effects of slow rusting, adult plant, pleiotropic resistance genes Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 and Yr30/Lr27/Sr2 were observed in the field and confirmed with molecular markers. Furthermore, molecular markers diagnostic for Yr9/Lr26/Sr31 and Yr17/Lr37/Sr38 were assessed on all varieties. Genes Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Yr9/Lr26/Sr31 and Yr27 were identified in varieties Sarvar, Vahdat, Oriyon, Isfara, Ormon, Alex, Sadokat, Ziroat-70, Iqbol, Shokiri, and Safedaki Ishkoshimi based on phenotypic and genotypic results. Some lines were highly resistant to stripe rust (4 varieties), leaf rust (5) and stem rust (9), but the genes responsible could not be identified. They may possess new resistance genes. We thus identified combinations of major and minor rust resistance genes in Tajik wheat varieties. These varieties can now be used by breeders in Tajikistan as crossing parents to develop new varieties with durable resistance to the rusts.
Primary Author: Rahmatov, Tajik Agrarian University, 146, Tajikistan
Keywords: Tajikistan, stripe rust, leaf rust, stem rust, phenotypic
A better understanding of the fundamental principles of host-pathogen interactions should enable us to develop new strategies to control disease and to eliminate or at least manage their causative agents. This is especially true for obligate biotrophic parasites like the rust fungi. One vital aspect in the field of obligate biotrophic host-pathogen interactions is the mobilization, acquisition and metabolism of nutrients by the pathogen. This includes transporters necessary for the uptake of nutrients as well as enzymes necessary for their mobilization and metabolism. In a broader sense effector molecules reprogramming the host or triggering the infected cell into metabolic shifts favorable for the pathogen also play an important role in pathogen alimentation.
Primary Author: Ralf T. Voegele, Fachgebiet Phytopathologie, Institut für Phytomedizin, Fakultät Agrarwissenschaften, Germany
Wheat rusts, notably yellow rust, are amongst the most damaging diseases on wheat in Morocco. The objective of this survey was to assess the incidence and severity of wheat rust diseases across Morocco. The survey was carried out during April-May 2017 where growth stage of wheat ranged from anthesis to physiological maturity. The severity and response rating for the adult plant field reaction to rusts were based on the modified Cobb scale. A total of 117 bread wheat fields were inspected. The survey revealed that the most prevalent disease was yellow rust (96 out of 117 fields). Leaf rust, SLD (Septoria Like Diseases) and to some extent root rot complex were less prevalent. Leaf rust was only observed in 8 out of 117 inspected fields and exhibited low severity. Stem rust was observed in only one field. Following the drought of 2016, the 2017 growing season was an epidemic year for yellow rust in Morocco. It was detected across all regions and 50% of inspected fields were highly infected. Those that were lightly or not infected were sprayed with fungicides up to two times. Almost all commercial bread wheat cultivars in Morocco are highly susceptible to yellow rust. Appearance of new virulent races is leading to the breakdown of resistance in major cultivars e.g., Arrihan, which had very few pustules of yellow rust in 2013 was highly susceptible in the last three years. Samples of yellow rust from 2016 revealed a new virulent race in all samples, temporarily designated Pst (new) [virulence pattern: [Yr-,2,3,-,-,6,7,8,9,-,-,17,-,25,-,32,Sp,AvS,-]. Thirty-four samples submitted to GRRC in 2017 were all of the same genotype, identical to the new race already detected in 2016. The results demonstrate that surveillance and genotyping/race phenotyping of samples may be important for early-warning and anticipatory breeding strategies.
Primary Author: Ramdani, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique INRA Morocco
Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions are demonstrated sources of resistance to wheat rusts. Identification, characterisation and provision of diverse sources of rust resistance to Australian wheat breeding companies form a key component of the Australian Cereal Rust Control Program. This study was planned to assess diversity of resistance to the three rusts among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage with several pathotypes of each rust pathogen. Stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30 and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in various combinations. A high proportion of cultivars were identified to carry Sr15/Lr20 presumably due to earlier selection, or fixation, of Pm1 in breeding populations. Seedling test data using five Pst pathotypes did not allow postulation of genes present in a many cultivars because of a widely effective single gene or overlapping effectiveness of two or more resistance genes. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr27 was postulated in five cultivars. The presence of Yr1 in one cultivar was predicted by amplification of the linked marker allele. Eighteen, 47 and 32 cultivars showing seedling susceptibility, respectively, to stem rust, leaf rust and stripe rust were tested under field conditions to identify sources of adult plant resistance (APR). Cultivars possessing APR to all three or to two rusts were identified. Molecular markers linked to APR genes Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Lr68, and Sr2 detected the likely presence of these genes in some cultivars.
Primary Author: Randhawa, The University of Sydney Plant Breeding Institute, Australia
Keywords: spring wheat, genetic diversity
Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat in western Canada. Although stripe rust was an issue in southern Alberta for many years, it became important in other parts of the country after a dramatic population shift in 2000, resulting from an invasive race. Sporadic epidemics of the disease are common and cause considerable loss, due to which, an intermediate level of resistance to stripe rust was required for new varietal registrations beginning 2017. Virulence surveys are of key importance in germplasm and cultivar development as they provide breeders and pathologists the information needed to better understand host-pathogen interactions and the effectiveness of Yr genes. Virulence characterization revealed a wide range of virulence phenotypes exhibited by 33 Pst races in western Canada, although only 2-3 races were predominant. The expression of Yr genes may differ between controlled conditions and natural field conditions as previously reported. Thus, stripe rust differentials and wheat cultivars grown in western Canada are also screened at multiple locations in every year. At present, all stage resistance genes Yr1, Yr4, Yr5, Yr15, Yr76, and YrSP are effective against the predominant Pst races, whereas at the adult stage under field conditions, Yr2, Yr17, Yr28, or those carried by Yamhill are also effective. Seedling resistance genes Yr7, Yr10, Yr17, or Yr27 were the most common in Canadian wheat cultivars. Of these, only Yr17 is effective under field conditions. Adult plant resistance genes Yr18 and Yr29 are carried by many cultivars, but are not effective under high disease pressure. The effectiveness of each resistance gene may vary between the eastern and western prairies of western Canada due to differences in virulence. Regular virulence surveys using contemporary and regional cultivars facilitate the development of rust resistant cultivars.
Primary Author: Randhawa, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta
Keywords: virulence, resistance, stripe rust, Canada
Common wheat Arula displays an acceptable level of adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust (YR), leaf rust (LR) and stem rust (SR) in Mexico, and to SR (Ug99 races) in Kenya. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from the cross of Arula with susceptible parent Apav was phenotyped under artificially created epidemics of the three rusts in 2014, 2015 and 2016 in Mexico and for SR during the off and main seasons of 2015 in Kenya. The RIL population and parents were genotyped using an iSelect 90K SNP array and 3 gene-linked markers (Sr2/Yr30-gwm533; Lr34/Yr18/Sr57-csLV34; Lr68-csGS), and a genetic map of 2,634 markers was constructed to locate the resistance loci. Two consistent QTL contributed by Arula were detected on chromosomes 3BS and 7DS, which corresponded to the previously known APR genes Sr2/Yr30 and Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, respectively. Sr2/Yr30 explained 1.1-14.7% and 41.0-61.5% of the phenotypic variation for YR and SR, respectively; whereas Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 accounted for 22.5-78.0%, 40.0-84.3% and 13.8-24.8% of the phenotypic variation for YR, LR and SR, respectively. Arula was also found to carry the positive allele for marker csGS closely linked to gene Lr68 on chromosome 7BL, although this gene was not detected using composite interval mapping. Our results show that RILs possessing both Sr2/Yr30 and Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 had significantly enhanced APR to all three rusts in field trials conducted in Mexico and Kenya. Strategic utilization of these two pleiotropic, multi-pathogen resistance genes with other minor genes is recommended to develop durable rust resistant wheat cultivars.
Primary Author: Randhawa, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico D.F., Mexico
The rapid adoption of new varieties of wheat with disease resistance is critical to mitigating losses due to new diseases or disease races, even when only part of an integrated disease management program may include fungicides. There are numerous sources of information that can be used by farmers in North Dakota when selecting varieties with specific disease resistance as well as other traits. Formal surveys were conducted to determine the role of extension activities on the adoption of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) control practices especially on the use of new varieties with FHB resistance. This disease became a regular and devastating problem of small grains in eastern North Dakotas in the 1990s. In a survey specific to North Dakota conducted in 2010, most respondents indicated that information from the extension service was their main source of information for FHB control with varietal selection their primary means of control. Extension publications, accessed through the internet or as hard copy obtained from an extension office or at an extension meeting were the most important sources; fewer respondents obtain their information from extension meetings and field days. A survey conducted in 2014 found that private sources (consultants and input suppliers) are becoming more important sources of information for FHB control and varietal selection, perhaps because the disease has become better understood and most new varieties have some level of FHB resistance. In durum wheat, where there are few varieties available from the private sector, extension publications were found to be the main source of information used for selecting new varieties. Data from these surveys show the importance of a strong and active extension program in ensuring that new varieties with resistance to new diseases/disease races are readily adopted.
Primary Author: Ransom, North Dakota State University