Stem (black) rust is a potentially important disease in northern, western and southern Iran. A new Pgt race with virulence to gene Sr31 appeared in Iran in 2007. Similar races have spread in Africa and some CWANA countries. In 2014 stem rust was widespread in western, northern, northwestern and central Iran, but at low severities. Thirty-nine stem rust samples were collected for race analysis. After purification and increase each isolate was inoculated to a set of 20 North American differentials in the greenhouse. Infection types were recorded 12-14 days after inoculation using the scale described by McIntosh et al. (1995, Wheat Rusts: An Atlas of Resistance Genes, CSIRO, East Melbourne, Australia). Races TKSTC (59%), TKTTC (20%), TTTTC, KTTSK (virulent on plants with Sr31), TTSTC, PTTTF and TTTTF were detected. Race TKSTC was common in western, northwestern and central Iran. Except for avirulence to Sr17 this race is similar to the race (TKTT) that caused a stem rust epidemic in Ethiopia in 2013.
Primary Author: Afshari, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Iran
The Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI) is situated on the left bank of River Kabul, near village Pirsabak, 3 km east of Nowshera at an elevation of 288 m above sea level on the intersection of 74? E longitude and 32? N latitude. In July 2010, a devastating flood destroyed all the available germplasm, machineries, laboratories, and field equipment. After the flood research activities were restarted with full motivation, dedication and hard work in collaboration with PARC, ICARDA, CIMMYT, and with the help of wheat productivity enhancement program (WPEP). Developed new population of wheat via spring x spring, spring x facultative germplasm to elevate genetic diversity and lines selected from segregating populations for high yield and rust resistance are at advanced stage of testing.
Since the flood, the CCRI developed four new wheat cultivars: Pirsabak-2013 Pakhtunkhwa-2015 for irrigated areas and Shahkar-2013 and Pirsabak-2015 for rainfed areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Varietal maintenance and seed production of the released varieties has been undertaken by the wheat breeding team effectively. The seed of these newly developed wheat cultivars was multiplied on fast track basis through pre-released seed multiplication and now these four varieties are the most popular cultivars of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Three new candidate wheat lines (PR-106, PR-110 and PR-112) have been submitted to provincial seed council for approval as new wheat cultivars for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two new candidate lines i.e. PR-115 and PR-118 got first position in National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (NUWYT) on the basis of grain yield during 2016-17 under irrigated and rainfed conditions, respectively.
Primary Author: Ahmad, Cereal Crops Research Institute Pirsabak Nowshera, Pakistan
Rust is the single largest factor limiting wheat production in Pakistan. According to the FAO reports, countries in the predicted immediate pathway of Ug99 grow more than 65 million hectares of wheat, accounting for about 25% of global wheat harvest.
Rice, a member of the same family (Poaceae) is not attacked by any rusts. Wheat, an allo-hexaploid is responsive for wide crossing. It has previously been successfully crossed with its several wild relatives and different other crop species like corn, pearl millet etc. Based on the above facts wheat ? wild rice crossing has been attempted to incorporate rust resistance from rice to wheat. Successful crosses were made under in-vitro conditions. Surviving plantlets developed from these crosses were assayed for any genetic material introgressed from rice. Different cytological / molecular techniques were used to detect the introgression (Squash preparations from root tips, FISH, GISH, SSR etc.). Two hundred and fifty primers specific to rice chromatin were used to look for the introgression of rice chromatin into hybrids. Seven primers amplified the fragments in hybrids indicating the possible introgression of rice chromatin in wheat x rice hybrids but in-situ hybridization didn't confirm that introgression. So further testing of these hybrids is needed.
Primary Author: Ahmad, Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Rusts and drought are the principal yield-limiting factors for wheat production in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey. The aim of the study was to determine resistance sources in a crossing block of drought tolerant lines. Seedling tests involving all three rusts were carried out at CRIFC, Yenimahalle, in 2014. Inoculations were made with local Pgt (avirulent on differentials with Sr24, Sr26, Sr27 and Sr31), Pt (avirulent on differentials with Lr9, Lr19, Lr24 and Lr28) and a local Pst population. Reactions were scored 14 days post-inoculation on 0-4 (LR and SR) or 0-9 (YR) scales. Seventeen (19%) genotypes were resistant to stripe rust, 11 (12%) were resistant to leaf rust, and 17 (19%) were resistant to stripe rust.
Primary Author: Akan, The Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Turkey
Turkey is an important producer of bread wheat. Fungal diseases, including the rusts, limit production. Resistant varieties are the main strategy for rust control. In this study 33 doubled haploid lines developed by anther culture and 9 standard cultivars were evaluated for seedling (YR, LR, and SR) and adult plant reactions (YR) to rusts at the Central Research Institute for Field Crops at Yenimahalle and Ikızce in 2014. For adult plant reactions the genotypes were inoculated with local Pst populations (virulent on differentials with Yr2 Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27, YrSd, YrSu, and YrA). Stripe rust development on each entry was scored on the modified Cobb scale when the susceptible check Little Club reached 80S disease severity in June 2014. Coefficients of infection below 20 were considered to be resistant. Seedlings were inoculated with local Pgt (avirulent on differentials with Sr24, Sr26, Sr27 and Sr31), Pt (avirulent on differentials with Lr9, Lr19, Lr24 and Lr28) and the Pst population. Seedling reactions were recorded 14 days post inoculation on either 0-4 (SR and LR) or 0-9 (YR) scales. Thirteen (33%), 2 (5%) and 9 (23%) genotypes were resistant to SR, LR and YR, respectively. Fifteen (38%) genotypes were resistant to stripe rust at the adult stage.
Primary Author: Akan, Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Turkey
Bread wheat is the most important cereal crop in Turkey. Rusts (caused by Puccinia spp.) are the most significant diseases affecting wheat yield and quality on the Central Anatolian Plateau. The purpose of this study was to identify the reactions of 198 Turkish, white seeded, winter wheat genotypes developed by the Central Research Institute for Field Crops (CRIFC) and entered in preliminary yield trials. Adult plant and seedling tests were conducted for stripe rust whereas only seedling tests were conducted for leaf rust and stem rust. Evaluations were carried out at CRIFC, İkizce and Yenimahalle, in the 2014 season. For adult plant stripe rust assessments the materials were inoculated with a local Pst population (virulent on differentials carrying Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27, YrSd, YrSu, and YrA). Stripe rust development on each entry was scored using the modified Cobb scale when the susceptible check Little Club had reached 80S in June 2014. Coefficients of infection were calculated and values below 20 were considered to be resistant. Seedlings were inoculated with local Pgt (avirulent on differentials with Sr24, Sr26, Sr27 and Sr31), Pt (avirulent on differentials with Lr9, Lr19, Lr24 and Lr28) and the Pst population. Reactions were scored for each entry at 14 days post-inoculation on standard 0-4 (LR and SR) or 0-9 (YR) scales. At the seedling stage, 56 (28%), 43 (22%), and 31 (31%) genotypes were resistant to SR, LR and YR, respectively. Eighty three (42%) lines were resistant to YR at the adult stage.
Primary Author: Akan, Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Turkey
Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) is a fungal disease that can significantly reduce wheat yields and quality. The goal of this study was to screen 281 winter bread wheat landraces genotypes for their reaction to stem rust disease in seedling and adult plant stage.
For seedling stage, the experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in Field Crops Central Research Institute in Ankara, Turkey during 2017 growing season. The genotypes were grown at 20?4?C under greenhouse condition and inoculated (avirulent on Sr24, 26, 27, and 31 resistance genes) with urediniospores in mineral oil suspension at Zadoks growth stage 11 or 12. After inoculation, the genotypes were incubated at 20?1?C with 100% humidity during 24 hours then at 18-25?C. Scoring took place after 14 days using a 0-4 scale. Infection types on the susceptible checks (cv. Gun-91 and Thatcher) were 3+ scores. For adult plant reactions, the genotypes were screened under natural epidemic conditions for Pgt (virulent on Sr5, 6, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9b, 9g, 10, 30, Tmp and Mcn resistance genes) in Seydiler-Kastamonu, Turkey. The materials were sown in a one-meter row with three replications. Stem rust development on each entry was scored using the modified Cobb scale (Little Club had reached 80-100S) in August 2017. Coefficients of infections were calculated and values below 20 were considered to be resistant.
Two (1%) (Seedling stage) genotypes and 15 (5%) (Adult stage) genotypes were resistant to Pgt. The resistance genotypes identified in this study can be used in breeding programs. SNP markers will be identified for stem rusts resistance identified in the landrace population.
Primary Author: Akan, Ahi Evran University, Agriculture Faculty, Plant Protection Department K?rsehir/Turkey
Berberis species are important alternate hosts and generate new races of stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and yellow (stripe) rust fungus Puccinia striiformis. Berberis species are common in Kastamonu province of Turkey. In 2016 and 2017, surveys were conducted in Kastamonu province in order to elucidate aecial infection status of Berberis species in this region. In 2016, the central region and A?l?, Ara?, Daday, ?hsangazi, Seydiler, Ta?k?pr? and Tosya regions and in 2017 central region and Ara?, Daday, Han?n?, P?narba??, Seydiler, Ta?k?pr? and Tosya regions of Kastamonu province were investigated. It appears that there are at least two different Berberis species exist in that area. Berberis species showed variation in terms of fruit color and morphological characters. In 2016, 50 Berberis plants were examined and aecia were present in 38 plants (76%). Percentage of plants parts infected with aecia ranged between 3-80%. In 2017, 64 Berberis plants were examined. Aecia were present in 34 plants (53%). Percentage of plants parts infected with aecia ranged between 3-85%. Aecia were mainly observed on leaves but also observed on other plant parts including flower parts, fruit and young twigs. The role of these aecia and Berberis spp. on rust diseases in Kastamonu province of Turkey should be investigated.
This study was supported by General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policies, Turkey (Project No: TAGEM-BS-15\12-01\02-02).
Primary Author: Akci, Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Yenimahalle, Ankara, Turkey
Northern Kazakhstan and Western Siberia are major high latitude spring wheat growing regions on the Eurasian continent. Rust epidemics can cause serious crop losses in this region. For this purpose, the Kazakhstan-Siberian network for wheat improvement (KASIB) was created in 2000. Seventy wheat cultivars and lines from a KASIB nursery were characterized for seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust using Australian pathotypes in greenhouse and field experiments. A molecular marker (STS iag95) detecting 1RS and therefore genes located in the rye component of the 1BL.1RS translocation was used to verify the presence/absence of Lr26. Field assessments of the nursery were conducted at Cobbitty using mixed Pt pathotypes. Lr26 was detected in five cultivars (Bayterek, GVK-1916-9, Altayskaya 105, Ok-1, and Omskaya 36) based on seedling tests using seven pathotypes. This was confirmed using the SRS marker. Other genes postulated included Lr3a (in cv. GVK 1860/8, GVK 1369/2, GVK 1857/9, and GVK 1526-2) and uncharacterized gene/s in cv. Zhenis and Lutescens-166 SP 94). The majority of KASIB entries were susceptible in seedling tests to Pt, but varying levels of potentially useful resistance were observed in 23 genotypes tested in the field. Low infection types on seedlings and field resistance in cv. Tertsia, Aria, and Sonata suggested the presence of unknown gene/s of potential value that warrant further investigation. Future efforts to breed wheat varieties resistant to one or more of the cereal rust pathogens will require identification of resistance sources that differ from those already present. Understanding the dynamics of pathogenic variability in pathogen populations is also important in selecting appropriate resistances.
Primary Author: Akhmetova, CIMMYT-Kazakhstan
A diverse set of winter wheat germplasm was screened for resistance to stem rust in large-scale trials in Kenya and Turkey during 2009-16. The study aimed to select resistant material and characterize types of resistance and possible genes, as well as evaluate agronomic traits and resistance to other diseases to select superior variety candidates and parental lines. The study material was comprised of various Facultative and Winter Wheat Observation Nurseries (FAWWON), which are developed and distributed by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (www.iwwip.org) in Turkey. More than 1600 global accessions were screened, with most evaluated for two years. Based on stem rust data from Kenya, more than 400 genotypes were identified exhibiting adequate levels of resistance to the Ug99 race group. The highest number of resistant lines originated from IWWIP (~170), USA (~100), Russia (~40), Iran (~30), Romania (~20), and South Africa (~20). Material was also tested at two sites in Turkey: Haymana (artificial inoculation) and Kastamonu (natural infection). There was no significant correlation between stem rust severities in Kenya and in Turkey, due to differences in stem rust pathotypes. However, a set of germplasm (more than 100 entries) has been identified as resistant in both countries. This set represents promising material as variety candidates and parental lines; another study is currently identifying the genes controlling the stem rust resistance in this population. IWWIP distributed stem rust resistant germplasm to its global collaborators during 2010-2015, in response to the threat from the Ug99 race group. New resistant germplasm combining broad adaptation, high yields, and resistance to other diseases is available on request.
Primary Author: Akin, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), P.K. 39 Emek 06511 Ankara, Turkey