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Rust resistant spring wheats from Kazakhstan and Siberia: Genotype prediction as a basis for effective resistance breeding

Northern Kazakhstan and Western Siberia are major high latitude spring wheat growing regions on the Eurasian continent. Rust epidemics can cause serious crop losses in this region. For this purpose, the Kazakhstan-Siberian network for wheat improvement (KASIB) was created in 2000. Seventy wheat cultivars and lines from a KASIB nursery were characterized for seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust using Australian pathotypes in greenhouse and field experiments. A molecular marker (STS iag95) detecting 1RS and therefore genes located in the rye component of the 1BL.1RS translocation was used to verify the presence/absence of Lr26. Field assessments of the nursery were conducted at Cobbitty using mixed Pt pathotypes. Lr26 was detected in five cultivars (Bayterek, GVK-1916-9, Altayskaya 105, Ok-1, and Omskaya 36) based on seedling tests using seven pathotypes. This was confirmed using the SRS marker. Other genes postulated included Lr3a (in cv. GVK 1860/8, GVK 1369/2, GVK 1857/9, and GVK 1526-2) and uncharacterized gene/s in cv. Zhenis and Lutescens-166 SP 94). The majority of KASIB entries were susceptible in seedling tests to Pt, but varying levels of potentially useful resistance were observed in 23 genotypes tested in the field. Low infection types on seedlings and field resistance in cv. Tertsia, Aria, and Sonata suggested the presence of unknown gene/s of potential value that warrant further investigation. Future efforts to breed wheat varieties resistant to one or more of the cereal rust pathogens will require identification of resistance sources that differ from those already present. Understanding the dynamics of pathogenic variability in pathogen populations is also important in selecting appropriate resistances.

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The features of wheat rust development and the resistance of local cultivars in Kazakhstan

The climatic conditions of Kazakhstan are suitable to grow the high-quality grain of spring wheat on an area of 12-14 mil.ha. The country’s sharply continental climate limits the wheat yield as well as biotic stresses. Among latter factors, diseases significantly reduce yield up to 25% and more during epyphytoties. In the Northern Kazakhstan the considerable threat for common wheat comes from leaf rust (Puccinia  triticina), stem rust (Puccinia graminis), septoria (Stagonospora nodorum, Septoria tritici), and tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis); yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) infects wheat plants in the South and South-east regions, where the winter wheat is more common. Epiphytoties of leaf rust were observed in 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007. Many years research has led to conclusion that local wheat varieties do not possess resistance to mentioned diseases. Last year screening of 46 cultivars at Kostanay province designated virulence to local pathotypes, except of couple of them (Kazakhstanaskaya 19 and Karabalykskaya 20). Russian varieties (Omskaya 37, Omskaya 39, Omskaya 41, Uralo-sibirskaya, Pamyati Mayestrenka, Lyubava, and Altayskaya zhnitza) demonstrated “slow rusting”. In the period of 2001-2014 the effectiveness to leaf rust was identified using Thatcher isogenic lines under northern Kazakhstan conditions and showed avirulence to local Pt pathotypes in lines carrying Lr9, Lr24, Lr29, Lr35, and Lr37 as well as the pyramid of Lr genes and/or “slow rusting” genes. The essential spread of stem rust was recorded in 2007, 2008, 2013, and 2014. Taking into account the absence of local sources of infection.  In addition, the monitoring of pathogen with use of a set of lines with Sr genes detected the absence of aggressive race within north of Kazakhstan. In order to create resistant cultivars the sources of resistance are recommended to apply from current study.

Kazakh Research Institute of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Kazakhstan
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