During the 2014/15 main crop season 831 wheat fields and experimental plots were assessed for diseases; 66.2% were in the Oromiya, 20.3% in Tigray and 13.4% in SNNP regions. The major diseases encountered include rusts, septoria leaf blotches, foot and root diseases, Fusarium head blight and smuts. The overall mean prevalence of stem rust was 61%, yellow rust 22%, leaf rust 18.8% and Septoria leaf blotches 52.9%. The incidence of the important diseases was highest in SNNP region. The mean incidence of yellow rust ranged from 5.7% in Oromiya to 39.2% in SNNP. The lowest incidence of stem rust, 15.9%, was noted in Tigray and the highest, 64.4%, in SNNP. The minimum mean Septoria incidence was 23% in Oromiya, and maximum was 66.7% in SNNP. Stem rust severities varied from 7 MR-MSS in Tigray to 36 MR-MSS in SNNP. Furthermore, the widely grown varieties Digelu and Danda’a were resistant to yellow rust, but susceptible to stem rust. Varieties Meda Wolbu, Hogona and Ogolcho were not affected by any of the rusts in Oromiya. Variety Hidase was susceptible in SNNP. Out of 115 Pgt cultures established from stem rust samples collected from the three regions, races TKTTF, RRTTF, TTKSK, TRTTF and JRCQC were identified. Stem rust samples were collected from varieties Digelu, Danda’a, Kakaba, and Hidase. Race TKTTF, virulent on Digalu and first identified in Oromiya region in 2013, is now present in all areas. Adapted varieties with durable stem rust resistance in Ethiopia remains an urgent requirement.
The status of wheat diseases in Ethiopia in the 2014/2015 main crop season