A decade of stem rust surveillance: How far have we come and where are we going?
In response to the threat posed by Ug99 (race TTKSK) and a global expert panel assessment, the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) was formed in 2005. This represented one of the most comprehensive global programs to address an emerging crop pathogen threat. For the last decade, surveillance and monitoring has been a key component of the BGRI. Progress in rust surveillance and monitoring over the last ten years is critically reviewed, with a focus on stem rust. The transition from a data poor environment regarding stem rust to a fully functional, comprehensive crop pathogen surveillance system is a notable success. Key components and status of the current system are described, including; the surveillance network, the data management and information platforms, and pathogen tracking. The application of the existing surveillance and monitoring system and the current status of important stem rust races are described. The role that new technologies are playing in the monitoring and tracking of stem rust is highlighted. Recent stem rust epidemics in East Africa provide stark warning of threat that the disease poses and the clear need to continuously monitor evolving stem rust populations. Shortcomings of the existing system are examined and future directions for the surveillance and monitoring system are outlined.