Agharakar Research Institute Pune
yashavanthakumar,Kakanur, Vijendra, Baviskar, Ajit, Chavan, Vilas, Surve, Vijay, Khade, Juned, Bagwan, Vitthal, Gite, Shrikant, Khairanar, Sameer, Raskar, Deepak, Bankar, Satish, Misra, , , , , , , ,
MACS 3949 is a durum wheat variety developed at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune derived through selection method from 39th IDYN (CIMMYT). The variety was identified by 55th All India Wheat and Barley workshop CCS HAU, Hissar and subsequently notified by Central Sub Committee on Crop Standards, India. On the basis of mean of three years (2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16) data from All India coordinated experiment, grain yield of MACS 3949 (43.98 q/ha) was higher to all the checks Viz., NIDW 295 (39.70 q/ha) and UAS 428 (41.78 q/ha). Overall, MACS 3949 showed a yield advantage of about 10.78 % over NIDW 295 and 5.24 % over UAS 428. The important morphological traits of the variety described as, semi dwarf with average plant height around 81 (78-83) cm, medium sized strong waxy semi erect green leaves, parallel dense spikes with long spreading awns. Grains were amber colored, bold lustrous, semi hard, elliptical in shape with short brush, soft threshing at maturity and1000-grain weight was about 47 (42-53) gm. The variety has shown resistance to leaf rusts, in particularly the seedling resistance to race 77-complex of leaf rust, stem rust, leaf blight, powdery mildew, flag smut and karnal bunt under both natural and artificial screening conditions. It has high protein content (12.9 %), better nutritional quality (Zinc 40.6 ppm, Iron 38.6 ppm) with good milling quality (Test weight 81.4 kg/hl) and best cooking quality for pasta product having highest overall acceptability 7.25. The newly developed durum wheat variety MACS 3949 released for cultivation at Peninsular Zone in India, which is having rich source of nutritional pasta quality with high zinc and iron content will be a promising one for future potential of export at international market.
Laboratoire de Biologie, Eau et Environnement, département d'écologie,university of 8 mai1945 Guelma, Algeria
Epidemics of stripe (yellow) rust on wheat and triticale fields of Algeria in 2016. Wheat and triticale fields in 69 localities from the eastern regions of Algeria were assessed for epidemics, which started in early march to late may corresponding to booting stage up to early dough stage of the alternative type crop. The infection had incidences ranging from 30 to 100% and severities of 30 to 70%. The newly released cultivar Ksar sbahi was infected up to 10%. The old improved durum cultivars HAR3116 (SHA7/KAUZ) and HAR1407 (COOK/VEES//DOVES) were rust-free at a number of locations. In the Amhara region, the wheat cultivars were at stem elongation to flowering with disease incidences of 50-100% and severities of 30-90%. The oldest cultivar ET 13 A2 was severely infected in the north Shewa zone of Amhara region. Triticale cultivar Logaw Shibo was susceptible at elevations above 2700 m and showed trace reactions at elevations below 2500 m. The local bread wheat cultivar grown in all wheat growing areas was only slightly affected by the disease. Yellow rust was rarely recorded in the Tigray region. Severe epidemics were recorded in the highlands and even at lower elevations where it is not commonly found on wheat.
Ravi P Singh, Julio Huerta-Espino
Aphids are major pests of wheat, able to cause up to 40% yield reduction solely due to direct feeding and up to 60% when feeding is combined with the transmission of viral diseases. Wheat resistance to aphids has proven to be effective in protecting yields and also in reducing the transmission rate of viral diseases. Moreover, aphid resistance is fundamental to reduce the negative impacts that the indiscriminate use of insecticides have on the environment and human health. In this study we report the results derived from the evaluation of 326 synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) derived lines against the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum [Rondai]). Primary SHWs were crossed with CIMMYT elite lines and further selected in the breeding pipeline. Therefore, such lines have acceptable agronomic characteristics for its further use in breeding programs. The 326 SHW derived lines were evaluated at seedling stage, in five augmented incomplete blocks, arranged in split-plots, with two treatments (infested vs. non-infested) and with resistant and susceptible checks replicated 16 times. The measured variables were chlorophyll content with a SPAD meter and a visual damage score in a scale 0-100 was also taken. Measurements were recorded when the susceptible check was dead due to aphid feeding. The evaluations were repeated two times for confirmation. Our results indicate the presence of genetic variation for S. graminum resistance. We identified about 4 % of the lines to carry high levels of resistance against this aphid. These lines are currently used in CIMMYT's bread wheat breeding program to incorporate the resistance in elite germplasm.
Research Institute of Crop Husbandry, Azerbaijan
ATIF,ZAMANOV, Konul, Aslanova, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Rust diseases are considered the main stress factors that limit wheat productivity in the Azerbaijan. The studies on the impact of rust diseases on physiological processes at reproductive vegetation period is of very importance with view of evaluating size of yield and quality of the studied genotypes. For this purpose the studies focused on bread wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.), which differ sharply by architectonics, biological peculiarities and resistance to rust diseases. Comparative evaluation of the studied genotypes by physiological and quality parameters has been undertaken in two options: over plants infected with diseases in natural background, and over healthy plants (fungicide sprayed plants). Area of photosynthesis apparatus of leaf story (18,3-50,2 sm2) of the studied wheat genotypes changes in wide interval. Infestation level of leaves with yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) in wheat genotypes grown in natural infection background fluctuates between 5MS-40S in ontogenesis, but between 10MS-90S with brown rust (Puccinia recondita Desm.).
High level of infection with rust diseases leads to reduced size of leaf assimilation area and defoliation. Reduction of these dimensions makes up 10-90% in lower story leaves of genotypes infected with rust diseases, but 20-30% in upper story leaves. Genotypes with large and bending leaves subject to this disease more frequently. Value of photosynthesis intensity in ontogenesis at upper story leaves of the genotypes infected with rust diseases at natural background fluctuates between 6-18 ?mol CO2 .m-2.s-1 depending on level of infection, but in healthy plants between 16-29 ?molCO2 .m-2.s-1. Negative impact of these diseases on normal course of plant physiological process ultimately causes is reflected in yield and quality parameters.
Mohammad Kassem, Ghinwa Lababedi, Naim Al-Husien
Leaf rust is the most common rust in wheat production areas of Syria and causes significant annual yield losses. Using genotypes with durable resistance is the most economical way of controlling the disease. One of the best-known leaf rust resistance genes is Lr46 that confers a slow rusting type of adult plant resistance. The main objective of this study was to identify Lr46 in durum wheat genotypes using morphological and molecular markers. Thirty-two durum wheat genotypes were evaluated for response to leaf rust at the seedling and adult plant stages. Twelve genotypes (37.5%) were resistant (R), 10 (31.25%) were moderately resistant (MR), seven (21.87%) were moderately susceptible (MS), and three (9.37%) were susceptible (S). Molecular marker analyses using SSR marker wmc44 showed that 16 genotypes (50%) carried Lr46/Yr29. The genotypes possessing the marker linked to Lr46/Yr29 could be used for selection of Lr46/Yr29 in breeding for slow rusting resistance in durum.
Levent Ozturk, Ismail Cakmak
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is an important health problem worldwide, affecting about two billion people, especially children and women. Zinc deficiency related diseases are more prevailing in developing countries because populationa rely on cereals (i.e., wheat, rice and maize) as a staple food which are inherently low in micronutrients. Zinc concentration in cereal grains can be improved by genetic or agronomic biofortification. Optimized applications of soil and foliar Zn fertilizers has been found effective for cereals like wheat and rice but not significantly in maize. Current study focuses to elucidate the physiological reasons behind the poor response of maize to foliar applications compared to wheat. Experiments with stable isotope of Zn (70Zn) revealed the differences in leaf uptake, root and shoot translocation of foliar-applied Zn in wheat and maize. The results suggested that wheat has greater capacity for leaf absorption and translocation of foliarly applied Zn compared to maize. The increased leaf Zn uptake and localization in wheat was confirmed by a visual demonstration using Zn-responsive fluorescent dye Zinpyr and fluoresce microscopy. This study provides valuable information to maximize the uptake and deposition of foliarly applied Zn to cereal grains.
CREA-Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial Crops
Elisabetta Mazzucotelli, Oadi Matny, Antonietta Saccomanno, Raffaella Battaglia, Francesca Desiderio, Agata Gadaleta, Nicola Pecchioni, Pasquale De Vita, Giovanni Laido, Luigi Cattivelli, Brian Steffenson
The recent emergence of new widely virulent and aggressive strains of rusts (particularly stripe and stem rust) is threatening Italian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) production, especially under the trend of higher temperature and humidity. A big effort has been undertaken to explore the genetic variability for resistance to these fungal pathogens and discovering novel resistance genes. In particular, a wide set of tetraploid wheat lines was genotyped with several thousands of SNP markers and used for association mapping. This large collection consisted of a group of durum wheat cultivars, produced from the beginning of the last century up to now, a collection of wild emmer wheats (T. dicoccoides), and lines belonging to other wild and domesticated tetraploid subspecies, as a large untapped source of genetic diversity. In a tight cooperation with the University of Minnesota, this collection was evaluated for reaction to several races of stem and stripe rust pathogens in both controlled greenhouse and field conditions. Among the genotypes belonging to the collection are parents of segregating populations which were used for the validation of mapping results. Novel resistance loci were identified, that can be incorporated into new durum varieties through breeding programs. The QTLs found in this study, together with those available in literature, were projected to the recently sequenced durum wheat genome in order to define more precisely the chromosome regions and candidate genes involved in resistance to rusts. Lines which were resistant to multiple races of rust pathogens were also found among both T. dicoccoides and durum wheat cultivars as a source of resistance genes, whose cloning will be undertaken based on the results here obtained.
This study was supported by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, with the special grant RES-WHEAT.
Research centre SELTON
Alena Hanzalova, Jaroslav Matyk, Pavel Bartos
In the Czech Republic all three rust species on wheat occur. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) can be found almost everywhere, and it can cause yield losses up to 40% mainly in warmer parts of the country in South Moravia.
Yellow rust, typical for cooler climate, occurred in relatively long time intervals. However in 2013 new pathotypes tolerating higher temperatures occurred and caused yield losses. In 2016 yellow rust incidence was lower, being still important in Moravia, where yellow rust occurred already in previous years.
Stem rust incidence was very rare in the last years. However in Germany, outbreaks and new pathotypes (e.g. Digalu) of stem rust in 2013 were recorded and comeback of stem rust to Central Europe can be expected.
Rust control consists of chemical control and especially of breeding for resistance, that aims at combined resistance to all three rusts. On the scale 9 high resistance, 1 high susceptibility average 4 year rating (2013-2016) of the tested cultivars was 6.4 for yellow rust, 5.7 for leaf rust and 6.2 for stem rust.
"Triple rust resistance" was recorded in spring wheat LOTTE and winter wheat line SG-S 1684 13, high resistance to yellow rust and stem rust in the cultivar Steffi. Resistance to all three rusts of 14 winter wheat cultivars and 12 breeding lines from the Plant Breeding Station-Stupice is summarized on separate tables and described in the text.
Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Ghulam Mahboob Subhani, Javed Ahmad, Abid Mahmood
Global warming affects the environmental parameters of agro-based countries like temperature increase, melting of glaciers, floods, erratic rains, low temperature, frost and high temperature. As a result agriculture is becoming more vulnerable to global environmental shifts. In case of wheat, erratic or low rains badly affect the wheat crop of rainfed areas of the country along with high temperature at seedling or juvenile stage. Similarly, frost affects the early sown wheat crop in irrigated areas of Punjab. Lesser availability of irrigation water from water reservoirs also reduces the wheat crop productivity. Sudden increase in temperature (>30?C) during the month of March adversely affect the grain filling. High temperature during grain filling stage interferes with the photosynthetic activities of the plant due to enhanced maturity, grain become shriveled and results in low grain yield. The threat of these environmental changes can only be overcome through breeding with specific objectives which is cost effective once obtained.
Hence development of wheat varieties for frost, drought and heat tolerance is the only feasible solution to combat these stresses which is being used at Wheat Program of Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. New emphasis is also being given to develop frost resistant wheat varieties due to changing scenario of last few years. The institute is actively involved for the development of heat, drought and frost tolerant wheat varieties. During working for tolerance against any of these stresses plant types to be breed are physiologically and morphologically modeled in such a way that they should be capable of tolerating respective stress. In addition to breeding work an extensive research is also being done at Wheat Research Institute, AARI., Faisalabad to investigate best agronomic strategies to make wheat crop best adapted to environmental stress conditions.
Tel Aviv University
Assaf Distelfeld, Jacob Manisterski, Pnina Ben-Yehuda
Intensive breeding and replacement of traditional landraces by modern cultivars led to the narrowing of genetic variation in cultivated wheat. The most sustainable method for wheat improvement is utilization of genetic diversity from wheat wild relatives such as Aegilops speltoides that has a diversity of genes for resistance to leaf rust (LR). A high pairing-inducing Ae. speltoides strain collected from Israel was introgressed into T. turgidum subsp. durum var. landrace Nursi. The F1 plants were treated with colchicine to induce chromosome doubling. The resulting hexaploid plants were crossed to bread wheat cv. Beit-Lehem and F3 plants were backcrossed three times to bread wheat cv. Barnir. Each generation was selected for LR resistance to P. triticina isolate #1010 and five resistant wheat-Ae. speltoides introgression lines (ILs) designated DK1 to DK5 were selected. These Ae. speltoides ILs were genotyped using the 90K Infinium SNP assay and most of the polymorphic markers were mapped to chromosome 1B suggesting that the Ae. speltoides introgressions encompass most of this chromosome. To test if the newly identified gene is identical to Lr51, that was also introgressed from Ae. speltoides to chromosome 1B of bread wheat, the DK ILs were genotyped with the molecular marker AGA7 that was shown to be linked to Lr51. The Ae. speltoides AGA7 allele was absent in the DK ILs suggesting that these genotypes are not carrying the Lr51 introgression. Moreover, we performed an allelism test. Spring wheat cv. Kern harboring resistance gene Lr51 was crossed with DK2 and an F2 segregation ratio of 15R:1S was obtained, indicating that the resistance was conditioned by two independent dominant genes. Overall, our results suggest that DK2 carries a new leaf rust resistance gene from Ae. speltoides and this gene has potential for wheat improvement.