Sr24

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Baraibar
Instituto Nacional de Investigaci?n Agropecuaria (INIA) La Estanzuela
Keywords: 
Resistance Gene Tags: 
Co-authors: 
Paula Silva, Clara Pritsch, Miguel Raffo, Silvia Pereyra, Silvia German
Poster or Plenary?: 
Poster
BGRI Year: 
2018
Primary Author First Name: 
Silvina

Wheat stem rust (SR), caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, (Pgt) is considered one of the most destructive diseases of the wheat crop. As Sr24 and Sr31 are the most widely used resistance genes in the Southern Cone of America, wheat crops in this region is under threat of SR outbreaks posed by the potential migration of virulent Pgt Ug99-lineage races (Ug99+). Efforts have to be made to develop adapted lines resistant to Ug99+. Genes Sr26, Sr32 and Sr39 are effective to both Ug99+ and local races of the pathogen. This work is aimed to pyramid two and three of the resistance genes in two locally adapted wheat cultivars (G?nesis 2375 and G?nesis 6.87). Donor lines of Sr26, Sr32 and Sr39 (developed by I. Dundas, University of Adelaide, Australia) and molecular markers Sr26#43, csSr32#1 and Sr39#22r (developed by R. Mago et al., University of Adelaide) were used. Lines with two-gene combinations were developed in two steps. First, tree-way crosses were made by crossing heterozygous F1 plants (derived from crossings donor lines) to either one of the two adapted wheat cultivars. Subsequently, tree-way F1 plants were genotyped and only those with two-gene combinations were backcrossed (BC) twice to the adapted cultivars. Among three-way F1 plants, two-genes combinations were confirmed for Sr26+Sr32 (8 out of 31), Sr26+Sr39 (2 of 115) and Sr32+Sr39 (26 out of 103). In the BC1F1 generation, Sr26+Sr32, Sr26+Sr39 and Sr32+Sr39 combinations corresponded with 9, 9 and 45 out of 99, 27 and 241 plants, respectively. In 2017, 1345 BC2F1 plants are being grown to obtain BC2F2. We plan to intercross plants with two-gene combinations to obtain lines with the three genes which will be used as sources of resistance to develop cultivars with presumably longer lasting resistance to wheat SR.

Yadav
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
Keywords: 
Resistance Gene Tags: 
Co-authors: 
Vinod Kumar Mishra, Uttam Kumar, Ramesh Chand, Akhilesh Mishra, Arun Joshi
Poster or Plenary?: 
Poster
BGRI Year: 
2018
Abstract Tags: 
Primary Author First Name: 
Punam Singh

Ug99 is a devastating race of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici possessing virulence against resistant genes Sr31 and Sr24. This race is highly adoptive and has spread quite rapidly with 13 known variants covering 13 different countries. For reducing the vulnerability of wheat in south Asia to the Ug99, breeding durable resistant varieties is important. India, second largest wheat producer, falls in the predicted pathway of Ug99. Most of the Indian germplasm possesses Sr31 and Sr24 in their background. HUW468, a well adopted variety of north eastern plains zone (NEPZ) of India, carries durable resistance gene Sr2. To strengthen it, a MABB program was initiated to introgressed two major genes (Sr50 and SrWeb) using a donor line PMBWIR4 from CIMMYT. The foreground selection was performed with Xgwm47 for SrWeb and IB267 for Sr50 followed by the background selection by using 128 polymorphic SSR markers covering all chromosomes. Backcross progenies of HUW468 were screened in the field condition by using of Pgt race 21A-2 at IARI, Regional Station, Indore located in the central India. Superior selected lines from BC2F4:5 generation was planted at three locations in India namely; Varanasi, Indore and Dharwad. HUW468-09-25-47-09 and HUW468-09-25-47-56 were selected from BC2F5 generation having Sr50 and SrWeb along with Sr2 gene, superior agronomic performance and with 93.5% and 92.7% genome recovery, respectively. These two lines also possess 6-10 % yield superiority over the recipient parent HUW468. These lines have been submitted for registration in NBPGR (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources), India.

Malihipour
Seed & Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), AREEO, Karaj, Iran
Resistance Gene Tags: 
Co-authors: 
Ramin Roohparvar, Safarali Safavi, Gholamhossein Ahmadi
Poster or Plenary?: 
Poster
BGRI Year: 
2018
geographic_area: 
Primary Author First Name: 
Ali

In recent years, wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici, has been reconsidered in Iran due to its prevalence and the emergence of the dangerous Ug99 race. This study was conducted to understand pathogenic variation in the population of P. graminis f.sp. tritici, detection of effective genes, and identification of resistance in Iranian commercial wheat cultivars or advanced lines, by planting stem rust trap nurseries under natural disease infection in several regions of Iran during the 2016-2017 cropping season. The trap nursery in each location included 48 wheat lines each carrying a single gene of stem rust (Sr) resistance, seven lines each carrying Sr multigenes, eight additional lines to confirm four Sr genes, 149 commercial wheat cultivars or advanced lines from Iran, plus several susceptible checks. The percentage leaf area affected (disease severity) and infection type were recorded at adult plant stage when disease was well developed on flag leaves of susceptible checks. Results showed presence of virulence for several Sr genes in one or more locations. However, the single genes of Sr13, Sr23, Sr24, and two complex genes of Sr7a+Sr6+Sr12 and Sr6+Sr24+Sr36+Sr1RS-Am were still effective against stem rust in all locations. The results of evaluations of commercial wheat cultivars or advanced lines showed that approximately 16% the genotypes tested including wheat cultivars Gonbad, Shiroudi, Chamran-2, Baharan, Dena, Karkheh, and Arya were resistant in all locations.

Mojerlou
Tarbiat Modares University of Tehran, Iran
Primary Author Email: 
shidehmojerlou@yahoo.com
Resistance Gene Tags: 
Poster or Plenary?: 
Poster
BGRI Year: 
2015
Abstract Tags: 
geographic_area: 

Stem rust is a potentially destructive fungal disease of wheat worldwide. In 1998 Pgt pathotype TTKSK virulent to Sr31 was detected in Uganda. The same pathotype was confirmed in Lorestan and Hamedan provinces of Iran in 2007. We used a derivative of race TTKSK to phenotype 62 Iranian wheat landraces (resistant to stripe rust in a previous study) at the seedling stage to this new pathotype (TTSSK). Twenty eight accessions were evaluated for the presence of resistance genes Sr2, Sr22, Sr24, Sr25, Sr26, Sr35, Sr36 and Srweb using SSR markers. None carried Sr2, Sr24 or Sr26, but the presence of Sr22, Sr25, Sr35 and Sr36 was indicated. Some susceptible landraces predicted to carry Sr2 by marker analysis require further investigation. To evaluate defense gene expression in compatible and incompatible stem rust interactions we sampled resistant and susceptible cultivars at 0, 12, 18, 24, 72 hours post-inoculation (hpi). ?-1,3 glucanase expression was studied using qGLU-S and qGLUU-AS primers and a real-time PCR step-one ABI machine, with ?-tubulin and EF1-? genes used as internal controls. In incompatible interactions defense gene expression was increased at 24 hpi, but in compatible interactions the highest level of expression occurred at 12 hpi and was significantly decreased at 18 hpi. The results revealed that expression of defense genes such as ?-1,3 glucanase was earlier in compatible than in incompatible interactions but the expression level was less in incompatible interactions. On the other hand, in susceptible genotypes the expression of defense genes increased immediately after inoculation and declined sharply after infection. In contrast defense gene expression in resistant genotypes began to increase after establishment of the pathogen.

Complete Poster or Paper: 

Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race-specific genes or complex adult plant resistance is necessary to achieve durability. In the present study, we applied genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying loci associated with the Ug99 stem rust resistance (SR) in a panel of wheat lines developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Genotyping was carried out using the wheat 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Phenotyping was done in the field in Kenya by infection of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the Sr24-virulent variant of Ug99. Marker-trait association identified 12 SNP markers significantly associated with resistance. Among them, 7 were mapped on five chromosomes. Markers located on chromosomes 4A and 4B overlapped with the location of the Ug99 resistance genes SrND643 and Sr37, respectively. Markers identified on 7DL were collocated with Sr25. Additional significant markers were located in the regions where no Sr gene has been reported. The chromosome location for five of the SNP markers was unknown. A BLASTN search of the NCBI database using the flanking sequences of the SNPs associated with Ug99 resistance revealed that several markers were linked to plant disease resistance analogues, while others were linked to regulatory factors or metabolic enzymes. A KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) assay was used for validating six marker loci linked to genes with resistance to Ug99. Of those, four co-segregated with the Sr25-pathotypes while the rest identified unknown resistance genes. With further investigation, these markers can be used for marker-assisted selection in breeding for Ug99 stem rust resistance in wheat.

Long-Xi Yu, Shiaoman Chao, Ravi P. Singh, Mark E. Sorrells
PLoS One
Year: 
2017
Expert pick: 
False
Rust race: 
Month Posted: 

First Report of a Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Race Virulent to the Sr24 and Sr31 Wheat Stem Rust Resistance Genes in South Africa

Isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici belonging to the Ug99 race group are virulent to a broad spectrum of resistance genes, rendering most of the world's wheat germplasm susceptible to stem rust (3). Following the initial detection of Ug99 (TTKSK, North American [NA] race notation) in Uganda, virulence to the widely used Sr31 resistance gene has been reported from Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Iran (2,3). In November 2009, a wheat genotype suspected to carry Sr31 showed a susceptible response to stem rust in a disease nursery (29°08′05.02′′S, 30°38′29.18′′E), inoculated with race TTKSP, near Greytown in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Inoculation of urediniospores of the field collection (isolate UVPgt60) onto seedlings of line Federation4*/Kavkaz confirmed virulence for Sr31. In three independent, replicated, and comparative seedling tests, eight single-pustule isolates of UVPgt60 all typed to race PTKST following the NA race nomenclature. These isolates produced compatible infection types (ITs) (3+ to 4) on the Sr31 testers Gamtoos, Sr31/6*LMPG, Federation4*/Kavkaz, Kavkaz, and Clement, whereas isolate UVPgt59 (TTKSP) was avirulent (ITs ;1 to 1) on these genotypes. In addition to Sr31 virulence, the new race differed from TTKSP by producing a lower IT (2 to 2++) on Cns_T.mono_ deriv., the accepted entry for Sr21 in the NA differential set. The UVPgt60 isolates were clearly avirulent on Einkorn (Sr21) (IT ;1=), a response that also differed from those produced by BPGSC, TTKSF, and TTKSP (IT 2). With the exception of Sr21, UVPgt60 isolates had a virulence pattern similar to race TTKST (1), notably the virulence combination for Sr24 and Sr31. Isolate UVPgt60.6 was randomly selected for testing on additional Sr genes and South African wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Similar to the race identification experiments seedling tests were duplicated and compared with reactions produced by TTKSP and other races. Greenhouse temperatures for all seedling tests ranged between 18 and 25°C. On the basis of primary leaf responses, PTKST is avirulent (ITs 0; to 2++) for Sr13, 14, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 29, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 43, 44, Em, Tmp, and Satu and virulent (ITs 3 to 4) for Sr5, 6, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 9d, 9e, 9g, 10, 11, 16, 17, 24, 30, 31, 34, 38, 41, and McN. From 103 South African wheat cultivars and lines tested as seedlings, 59 and 47 were susceptible (IT ≥ 3) to races PTKST and TTKSP, respectively. Simple-sequence repeat analysis (4) with selected primer pairs showed that PTKST clusters with isolates belonging to the Ug99 lineage. Subsequent to the collection made at Greytown, stem rust sampled in December 2009 from naturally infected breeders' lines at Cedara (29°32′19.59′′S, 30°16′03.50′′E), KwaZulu-Natal, revealed five isolates with a virulence profile similar to PTKST. On the basis of current evidence it appears that PTKST may be an introduction to South Africa rather than a single-step mutation from local stem rust races.

Z. A. Pretorius, C. M. Bender, B. Visser, T. Terefe
Plant Disease
Year: 
2010
Volume: 
94
Issue: 
6
Start Page: 
784
Expert pick: 
False
Rust race: 

Kenyan Isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici from 2008 to 2014: Virulence to SrTmp in the Ug99 Race Group and Implications for Breeding Programs

Frequent emergence of new variants in the Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Ug99 race group in Kenya has made pathogen survey a priority. We analyzed 140 isolates from 78 P. graminis f. sp. tritici samples collected in Kenya between 2008 and 2014 and identified six races, including three not detected prior to 2013. Genotypic analysis of 20 isolates from 2013 and 2014 collections showed that the new races TTHST, TTKTK, and TTKTT belong to the Ug99 race group. International advanced breeding lines were evaluated against an isolate of TTKTT (Sr31, Sr24, and SrTmp virulence) at the seedling stage. From 169 advanced lines from Kenya, 23% of lines with resistance to races TTKSK and TTKST were susceptible to TTKTT and, from two North American regional nurseries, 44 and 91% of resistant lines were susceptible. Three lines with combined resistance genes were developed to facilitate pathogen monitoring and race identification. These results indicate the increasing virulence and variability in the Kenyan P. graminis f. sp. tritici population and reveal vulnerabilities of elite germplasm to new races.

Maria Newcomb, Pablo D. Olivera, Matthew N. Rouse, Les J. Szabo, Jerry Johnson, Sam Gale, Douglas G. Luster, Ruth Wanyera, Godwin Macharia, Sridhar Bhavani, David Hodson, Mehran Patpour, Mogens S. Hovmøller, Thomas G. Fetch Jr., and Yue Jin
Phytopathology
Year: 
2016
Volume: 
106
Issue: 
7
Start Page: 
729
Other Page(s): 
736
Expert pick: 
False
Rust race: 

Characterization of wheat-alien translocations conferring resistance to diseases and pests: current status

Wild relatives of common wheat, Triticum aestivum, and related species are an important source of disease and pest resistance and several useful traits have been transferred from these species to wheat. C-banding and in situ hybridization analyses are powerful cytological techniques allowing the detection of alien chromatin in wheat. C-banding permits identification of the wheat and alien chromosomes involved in wheat-alien translocations, whereas genomic in situ hybridization analysis allows determination of their size and breakpoint positions. The present review summarizes the available data on wheat-alien transfers conferring resistance to diseases and pests. Ten of the 57 spontaneous and induced wheat-alien translocations were identified as whole arm translocations with the breakpoints within the centromeric regions. The majority of transfers (45) were identified as terminal translocations with distal alien segments translocated to wheat chromosome arms. Only two intercalary wheat-alien transloctions were identified, one induced by radiation treatment with a small segment of rye chromosome 6RL (H25) inserted into the long arm of wheat chromosome 4A, and the other probably induced by homoeologous recombination with a segment derived from the long arm of a group 7 Agropyron elongatum chromosome with Lr19 inserted into the long arm of 7D. The presented information should be useful for further directed chromosome engineering aimed at producing superior germplasm.

B. Friebe, J. Jiang, W. J. Raupp, R. A. McIntosh, B. S. Gill
Euphytica
Year: 
1996
Volume: 
91
Issue: 
1
Start Page: 
59
Other Page(s): 
87
Expert pick: 
False

Seedling resistance to stem rust race Ug99 and marker analysis for Sr2, Sr24 and Sr31 in South African wheat cultivars and lines

The appearance and spread of races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici with virulence for the Sr31 resistance gene has renewed interest in breeding for durable resistance to stem rust of wheat. Since the occurrence of stem rust has been low in South Africa until the detection of race TTKSF in 2000, breeding for resistance to this disease has not been a primary objective. The aim of this study was to test bread wheat cultivars and lines at the seedling stage for their infection response to stem rust, thus determining their level of resistance or vulnerability. A collection of 65 bread wheat entries was tested with one USA race, two Eastern African races, and three South African races of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. The Eastern African and South African races all belong to the Ug99 lineage. The cultivars Duzi, Caledon, Elands, PAN 3364, PAN 3191, SST 047, SST 399, and Steenbras produced resistant infection types (IT <3) to all races. The molecular marker Sr24#50 indicated the presence of Sr24 in 12 entries. In cultivars resistant to TTTTF, TTKSF, and TTKSP but susceptible to TTKSK and PTKST, the iag95 DNA marker indicated the presence of Sr31 in five wheat lines. Using the cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker csSr2, Sr2 was detected in PAN 3377, Inia, and Steenbras. Few South African wheat cultivars appear to have a broad-based resistance to stem rust, as 88% of the entries were susceptible as seedlings to at least one of the races tested. Diversification of resistance sources and more directed breeding for stem rust resistance are needed in South Africa.

Pretorius, Z. A. ; Jin, Y. ; Bender, C. M. ; Herselman, L. ; Prins, R.
Euphytica
Year: 
2012
Volume: 
186
Issue: 
1
Start Page: 
15
Other Page(s): 
23

Genotyping of U.S. Wheat Germplasm for Presence of Stem Rust Resistance Genes Sr24, Sr36 and Sr1RSAmigo

The stem rust resistance genes Sr24, Sr26, Sr36, and Sr1RSAmigo confer resistance to race TTKSK (= Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Pers. (Pgt). A collection of 776 cultivars and breeding lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from all growing regions of the United States were screened with simple sequence repeat and sequence tagged site markers linked to Sr24, Sr26, Sr36, and Sr1RSAmigo to determine frequencies of these genes in U.S. wheat germplasm. Marker efficacy in predicting the presence of these genes was evaluated via comparison with assayed seedling infection type. Among the lines evaluated, the most predominant gene is Sr24, present in hard winter, hard spring, and soft winter wheat lines. Resistance in soft winter wheat is primarily due to Sr36. The 1RS{middle dot}1AL rye translocation carrying Sr1RSAmigo is present at equal frequencies in hard winter and soft winter wheat. Utilization of marker-assisted selection for stem rust resistance genes can hasten the development of wheat cultivars resistant to TTKSK and its variants and allow for the development of resistance gene pyramids for more durable stem rust resistance.

Olson,Eric L.; Brown-Guedira,Gina; Marshall,David S.; Jin,Yue; Mergoum,Mohamed; Lowe,Iago; Dubcovsky,Jorge
Crop Science
Year: 
2010
Volume: 
50
Issue: 
2.0
Start Page: 
668.0
Other Page(s): 
675.0

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