Sulaimani University,IKR, Iraq
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Rusts continue to cause significant losses in grain yield of wheat in Iraq. Substitution of susceptible cultivars with resistant ones is an important step in reducing the vulnerability of the wheat crop. The present study represents a breeding program to develop high yielding bread wheat cultivars with resistance to brown rust and yellow rust. The performance of 265 spring wheat genotypes representing an international bread wheat-screening nursery from CIMMYT were evaluated in different agro-ecological zones in comparison with local commercial cultivars. Adult plant stage screening of the materials for brown rust and yellow rust reaction under inoculated conditions for three successive seasons identified 29 resistant and 59 moderately resistant genotypes, and 79 genotypes out-yielded the local cultivars. The selected lines were comprehensively evaluated for grain yield potential and disease response in different locations and agro-systems. Among 13 genotypes line 172 was selected for higher grain yield than local commercial cultivars in the presence and absence of both diseases. Mean coefficients of infection on line 172 were 0.57 and 5.35 to brown rust and yellow rust, respectively. It was also moderately resistant to common bunt. Yield potential of the new cv. Alaa was 9-20% higher than the commercial local cultivars Araz, Tamuz 2 and Adana. Alaa was registered and released by the National Committee for Registration and Release of Agricultural Cultivars according to order no. 39, 30/10/2017 as a new cultivar with high yield potential and resistance to brown rust and yellow rust. Great emphasis was made on multiplication and delivery of seeds to farmers. Grain yield potential of Alaa on a farm scale is 3,372 Kg/ha under rain-fed conditions and 5,024 Kg/ha under irrigated conditions.
AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University
David,Baltensperger, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Monsanto, through the MBBIScholars Program, has invested $13 million over an 8 year period for training rice and wheat breeders from around the World. The Judging Panel for MBBISP selected 89 Scholars from 432 applicants. The selected scholars were from 30 different countries. Scholars selected included 35 young ladies and 54 young men, 37 are in rice breeding and 52 in wheat breeding. Currently 28 Scholars are still completing their PhD programs (As of 8/8/2017). This past year Monsanto established the "Ted Crosbie Monsanto Beachell-Borlaug International Scholars Impact Award" to begin recognizing Scholar contributions. To be eligible for the "Ted Crosbie MBBIScholars Impact Award," scholars must have received their PhD and must apply for the award. Bhoja Basnet, selected as an MBBIScholar in 2009 who is now in charge of CIMMYT's Hybrid Wheat Breeding program, was selected to receive the "Ted Crosbie Monsanto Beachell-Borlaug Scholars Program Impact Award" this year. Scholar contributions are in wheat and rice breeding as well as in other crops. Hopefully the Ted Crosbie MBBIScholars Impact Award will continue to recognize accomplishments of Scholars into the future. MBBIScholars are making an impact and we look forward to recognize their career contributions. Employment of Scholars post PhD will be reviewed.
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India-221005
Punam Singh,Yadav, Naveen Kumar Umesh Chandra, Dubey, Ramesh Chand, , Sundeep Kumar, , Arun Kumar, Joshi, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Four leaf rust adult plant resistance genes (Lr34, Lr46, Lr67 and Lr68) are known to be associated with leaf tip necrosis (LTN). LTN caused by these genes is different from each other at phenotypic level. LTN associated with APR genes Lr34, Lr46 and Lr67 has been designated as Ltn1, Ltn2 and Ltn3. Seventy-seven CIMMYT genotypes were selected to find out the association between genotypic and phenotypic variability for LTN and its association with yield traits; 1000 grain weight, grain yield, leaf area and percentage of leaf tip necrosis in the flag leaf of main tiller. All the genotypes were screened for the presence of 3 APR genes with linked markers, csLV34 for Lr34; Xwmc44 and Xgwm259 for Lr46 and Xcfd71 for Lr67. The genotypes were grouped into 5 classes; only Lr34, only Lr46, only Lr67, Lr34+L46+Lr67 and genotypes lacking all three genes. Molecular analysis revealed that 7 genotype with Lr34 only, 6 with Lr46 only, 7 with Lr67 only, 13 with all the 3 genes, and 28 without any Lr gene. Phenotypic data of LTN percentage was compared and it was noted that maximum LTN % was observed for Lr67 (7.811%) followed by Lr46 (7.348%) and Lr34 (6.47%). Surprisingly, presence of all three genes reduced the LTN% (4.7055%) as compared with absence of all three genes (6.011%). It was also observed that the three genes simultaneously reduced 1000 grain weight and plot yield. All three genes increased leaf area highly significantly both when they are alone or together (34.7 to 44.7 cm2) in comparison to those genotypes (24.7 cm2) which lacks these Lr genes and also reduced 1000-grain weight and plot yield but non-significantly.
The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
Muhammad,Khan, Muhammad, Ismail, Sher, Nawab, Abdullah, Jalal, Muhammad, Imtiaz, Sajid, Ali, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Rust disease response is used to assess the resistance status of breeding lines, which is required to be tested across location and complemented with molecular markers. The current study was designed to characterize yellow rust resistance in 29 introduced advanced CIMMYT wheat lines along with three check varieties across three contrasting wheat growing regions (Peshawar, Mansehra and Lakki-Marwat) during wheat season 2015-16. A high disease pressure was observed across all three locations as favorable cold and wet climatic conditions prevailed during 2015-16. The maximum disease was recorded at Mansehra (up to 90%) followed by Peshawar (up to 50%) and Lakki-Marwat (up to 45%). There was a significant variability amongst the tested wheat lines for yellow rust severity and in yield potential. Among the advanced lines, W-SA-104, W-SA-115 and W-SA-118 had better grain and biological yield. Based on disease and yield parameters, cluster analysis of 29 wheat lines along with three checks grouped wheat lines into four clusters. None of these wheat lines showed resistance at every location (Average coefficient of infection "ACI" = 0). The maximum co-efficient of infection (55) was recorded at Mansehra whereas the minimum (0) was recorded at Peshawar and Lakki-Marwat. Twenty-six of these wheat lines were identified to possess partial resistance to yellow rust (with ACI < 20). Genotyping for the presence of resistance gene markers STS-7 (linked with Yr5), SC-Y15 (linked with Yr17) and Xwmc-44 (linked with Yr29) revealed the highest frequency of Yr17 (90.60%), followed by Yr29 (87.5%) and Yr5 (50%). The three resistant genes together were present only in 15 wheat lines (46.87%). Our results thus revealed the presence of variation in resistance response based on both field testing and molecular markers which could be utilized in wheat breeding to develop better resistance varieties to be exploited at field level.
Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak Nowshera Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan
Gulzar,Ahmad, Imtiaz, Muhammad, Khilwat, Afridi, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
In the current scenario of climatic change, exploration and development of new stable genotypes performing better under stressed and non stressed environmental conditions is the priority of wheat breeders for exploiting genetic variability to improve stress tolerant cultivars. Late planting is one of the major abiotic stresses, seriously influencing wheat production. In the current study, twenty eight bread wheat genotypes were evaluated independently under normal (optimal) and late (stress) planting conditions at Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak Nowshera Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan during 2013-14. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (P < 0.01) differences among the genotypes, planting (sowing dates), and genotype ? sowing dates interactions effects for the studied traits. Generally, reduction in plant height (0.41 to 10.91%) and grain yield (0.36 to 53.35%) was observed among the tested genotypes under late planting as compared to normal (optimal) planting. Least % reduction in grain yield was recorded for genotypes BWL-23 (0.36%), BWL-4(0.76%), BWL-16(1.22%) and BWL-13 (1.78%) and were found tolerant to late planting stress as compared to check (Pirsabak-2008). Eight stress selection indices i.e. Mean productivity (MP), Tolerance (TOL), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Harmonic mean (HM), Stress selection Indices(SSI), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Yield Index (YI) and Yield Stability Index (YSI) were determined based on mean performance of genotypes evaluated under normal and late planting conditions. Analysis of correlation revealed that plant height and grain yield under normal and late planting conditions, had significant positive correlation with stress selection indices i.e. GM, HM, SSI and YI. These selection indices could be effective in identification of lines/ genotypes to late planting stress tolerant conditions. Based on MP, GMP, HM, STI and YI genotypes i.e. Pirsabak-2008, BWL-23 and BWL-27 were found late planting stress tolerant and could be recommended for sowing in both normal and late planting.
Department of BioEngineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India
Manish,Kumar, Kunal, Mukhopadhyay, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) being the world's most popular edible cereal, plays a major role in global economy. Rust in wheat leaves, caused by Puccinia triticina, affects grain quality and severely retards its production worldwide. Micro(mi)RNAs are considered major components of gene silencing and so have a great role to play during stress. The present study focuses on identification of miRNAs, produced by host to suppress pathogen as well as delivered by pathogens to encounter host defence mechanism. Therefore, these miRNAs may be called as leaf rust responsive microRNAs. Small RNA and degradome libraries were prepared from a pair of near isogenic lines of wheat (HD2329, HD2329+Lr24), one set was mock inoculated while the other set was inoculated with urediniospores of leaf rust pathogen. Using these libraries as input a vast number of miRNAs rather a population of miRNAs were identified derived from wheat that were targeting genes mostly involved in functions like defense response, signal transduction, development, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation.
When reads specifically produced under pathogen inoculation were taken as input with Puccinia triticina genome sequences as reference, only three putative miRNA precursor loci were detected and the molecules produced were called miRNA-like molecules as their precursors lacked one or two criteria essential for a true miRNA precursor. The identified miRNAs were targeting genes like F-box protein, MAP kinase, calmodulin and susceptible antioxidant protein. We further identified the presence of argonaute and dicer like domains in Puccinia proteome available at FungiEnsembl which strengthens presence of RNAi-like activities in Puccinia.
In addition, differential expression of wheat as well as Puccinia small RNAs using stem loop RT-PCR under varying time points of disease progression (0-168 hpi) revealed their direct connection with stress responses.
Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa
Marcel,Meyer, Robert, Park, Christopher, Gilligan, Laura, Burgin, Matthew, Hort, David, Hodson, Zacharias, Pretorius, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Despite being 10,000 km apart, the current study emphasizes the potential vulnerability of Australia to wind-borne Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) spore introductions from southern Africa. Of four Pgt introductions into Australia since 1925, at least two (races 326-1,2,3,5,6 and 194-1,2,3,5,6) are thought to have originated from southern Africa. Microsatellite analysis of 29 Australian and South African Pgt races confirmed close genetic relationships between the majority of races in these two geographically separated populations, thus supporting previously reported phenotypic similarities. Using Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model simulations with finely-resolved global meteorological data over a 14-year period and a three-day urediniospore survival time, the study showed that long distance dispersal of Pgt from southern Africa to Australia is possible, albeit rare. Transmission events occurred most frequently from central South Africa, but were also possible from southern South Africa and Zimbabwe; while none occurred from a representative source-location in Tanzania. Direct dispersal incursions into both the western and eastern Australian wheat belts were feasible. Together, the genetic and simulation data strongly support the hypothesis that earlier introductions of Pgt into Australia occurred through long-distance wind-dispersal across the Indian Ocean. The study thus acts as a warning of possible future Pgt dispersal events to Australia which could include members of the Ug99 race group. This emphasizes the continued need for Pgt surveillance on both continents.
The University of Jordan
Ayed,Al Abdallat, Monther, Tahat, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Studies on whet stem rust (WSR) in Jordan are considered to be old. There was only one study conducted in the late 1980's by Abu-Blan and Duwayri (1989) to evaluate the infection of wheat cultivars with black stem rust disease (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici). Recently, reports of stem rust were published in Israel and Lebanon in 2010 and first report of Ug99 was reported in Egypt in 2014. The objectives of our research are to: (i) survey wheat growing areas for WSR in Jordan during the years 2017-2020, (ii) identification of WSR races isolated from Jordan morphologically and molecularly, (iii) analyze rust populations in terms of their response to known differential sets, pathotype distribution and diversity, (iv) screening the response of Jordanian wheat germplasm to the identified WSR strains, and (vi) study the population diversity of WSR races using RT-PCR and SNP genotyping. In 2017 a total of 270 fields of wheat and barley in the wheat and barley growing areas in Jordan were surveyed from March-May. The survey covered northern, middle, and southern parts of Jordan (arid and semi-arid regions). Altitude, longitude, and latitude data was recorded. Only few WSR pustules (n=4) were collected because the environmental conditions were not suitable for the disease to develop. On the other hand, wheat stripe rust was very common in the wheat growing areas mainly at the southern parts of the country. Other fungal plant pathogens were also reported including smuts, spots, blotches, powdery mildew, crown rot, fusarium head blight, and flag smut.
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Shahriyar,Sadigov, Alamdar, Mammadov, Irada, Huseynova, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Rust of cereals are considered to be an important disease in many countries, including Azerbaijan. One of these is stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Extensive research on the identification of wheat stem rust resistance genes and effectiveness of these genes in various geographical regions have been conducted. Genetic resistance is one of the most effective ways for controlling stem rust. Sixty-nine stem rust resistance genes (including 45 identified Sr genes and 24 genes with temporary designations) are registered in the Komugi Wheat Genetics Resource Database. It is important to use proper combinations of resistance genes in developing lasting resistance wheat. The main purpose of the study was to identify lines caring Sr11, Sr26 and Sr31 genes, which are effective to the predominant Pgt races in Azerbaijan. Durum and bread wheat genotypes differing in their disease resistance, productivity and other physiological traits were chosen from the wheat gene bank of the Research Institute of Crop Husbandry (Baku, Azerbaijan) for analysis. DNA extraction was carried out according to standard CTAB protocol. RT-PCR performed using KASP markers (KASP_6BL_BS0074288_51 and KASp_6BL_Tdurum contig55744_822) identified nine durum genotypes (out of 34 genotypes) and seven wheat genotypes (out of ten genotypes), caring Sr11. Using the dominant STS marker (Sr26#43) a diagnostic 207 bp amplicon for Sr26 gene, was observed in 11 of the 42 wheat genotypes tested. In eight of the 42 wheat genotypes tested, the diagnostic 1,110 bp amplicon was observed using the Lr26-Sr31-Yr9 locus specific marker iag95, characteristic of Sr31 gene located at 1BL.1RS translocation. For the first time, wheat germplasm in Azerbaijan was analyzed using KASP genotyping technology and genetic resources, and resulted in the identification of wheat lines with effective resistant to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TKTTF.
Wheat Dis. Res. Dept., Plant Pathol. Res. Inst., A.R.C., Sakha, Egypt
Les,John Szabo, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is one of the most serious disease of wheat worldwide. The discovery of new Pgt races in Africa, Ug99 and its variants, brings a new threat to global wheat production. In this study, 50 single pustule stem rust samples, were collected during 2015-2016 from the International Stem rust Trap Nursery (ISRTN) and commercial wheat fields in Sakha, the most important wheat growing region in Egypt. SNP-genotyping was carried out at USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory. Infection and genotype data confirmed that none of these samples belonged to the Pgt Ug99 race group. Forty-five samples were successfully genotyped consisting of 12 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs). The majority (86.7%) of the samples belonged to three clades: 10 samples, clade III-B (MLG.04, race TTRTF) collected from Misr 3, Sakha 95 and Sids 14 wheat lines; 12 samples, clade IV-A.2 (MLG.06, race TKTTF) collected from Sr 5, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr7b, Sr8b, Sr9a, Sr9e, Sr10, Sr11, Sr15, Sr16 and Sr17 wheat lines; 17 samples, clade IV-E.2 (MLG.11, race TKKTF) from Sr13, Sr14, Sr19, SrMcN, Sr24, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha95 and Sids 12 wheat lines. Pgt samples belonging to clades IV-A.2 and IV-E.2 have been observed from Europe to the Middle East, and samples from clade III-B from the southern Caucasus Mountains, Middle East to northeast Africa. The remaining six samples collected from Sr12, Sr18, Sr20, Sr21, Sr22 and Sr25 wheat lines represent two new genotypes (MLG.14 and MLG.17) that have not been assigned to clades. MLG.14 was also observed in samples from Azerbaijan, Iraq and Eritrea. In contrast, this represents the first detection of MLG.17. These results suggest continued variability of the Pgt population in Egypt therefore, emphasizing the importance regularly monitoring to timely identify new races, and utilize this information in screening and identification of effective sources of resistance.