Seed & Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), AREEO, Karaj, Iran
Ramin,Roohparvar, Safarali, Safavi, Gholamhossein, Ahmadi, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
In recent years, wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici, has been reconsidered in Iran due to its prevalence and the emergence of the dangerous Ug99 race. This study was conducted to understand pathogenic variation in the population of P. graminis f.sp. tritici, detection of effective genes, and identification of resistance in Iranian commercial wheat cultivars or advanced lines, by planting stem rust trap nurseries under natural disease infection in several regions of Iran during the 2016-2017 cropping season. The trap nursery in each location included 48 wheat lines each carrying a single gene of stem rust (Sr) resistance, seven lines each carrying Sr multigenes, eight additional lines to confirm four Sr genes, 149 commercial wheat cultivars or advanced lines from Iran, plus several susceptible checks. The percentage leaf area affected (disease severity) and infection type were recorded at adult plant stage when disease was well developed on flag leaves of susceptible checks. Results showed presence of virulence for several Sr genes in one or more locations. However, the single genes of Sr13, Sr23, Sr24, and two complex genes of Sr7a+Sr6+Sr12 and Sr6+Sr24+Sr36+Sr1RS-Am were still effective against stem rust in all locations. The results of evaluations of commercial wheat cultivars or advanced lines showed that approximately 16% the genotypes tested including wheat cultivars Gonbad, Shiroudi, Chamran-2, Baharan, Dena, Karkheh, and Arya were resistant in all locations.
Agharakar Research Institute Pune
yashavanthakumar,Kakanur, Vijendra, Baviskar, Ajit, Chavan, Vilas, Surve, Vijay, Khade, Juned, Bagwan, Vitthal, Gite, Shrikant, Khairanar, Sameer, Raskar, Deepak, Bankar, Satish, Misra, , , , , , , ,
MACS 3949 is a durum wheat variety developed at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune derived through selection method from 39th IDYN (CIMMYT). The variety was identified by 55th All India Wheat and Barley workshop CCS HAU, Hissar and subsequently notified by Central Sub Committee on Crop Standards, India. On the basis of mean of three years (2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16) data from All India coordinated experiment, grain yield of MACS 3949 (43.98 q/ha) was higher to all the checks Viz., NIDW 295 (39.70 q/ha) and UAS 428 (41.78 q/ha). Overall, MACS 3949 showed a yield advantage of about 10.78 % over NIDW 295 and 5.24 % over UAS 428. The important morphological traits of the variety described as, semi dwarf with average plant height around 81 (78-83) cm, medium sized strong waxy semi erect green leaves, parallel dense spikes with long spreading awns. Grains were amber colored, bold lustrous, semi hard, elliptical in shape with short brush, soft threshing at maturity and1000-grain weight was about 47 (42-53) gm. The variety has shown resistance to leaf rusts, in particularly the seedling resistance to race 77-complex of leaf rust, stem rust, leaf blight, powdery mildew, flag smut and karnal bunt under both natural and artificial screening conditions. It has high protein content (12.9 %), better nutritional quality (Zinc 40.6 ppm, Iron 38.6 ppm) with good milling quality (Test weight 81.4 kg/hl) and best cooking quality for pasta product having highest overall acceptability 7.25. The newly developed durum wheat variety MACS 3949 released for cultivation at Peninsular Zone in India, which is having rich source of nutritional pasta quality with high zinc and iron content will be a promising one for future potential of export at international market.
Sathguru Management Consultants
Kanan,Vijayaraghavan, Vijay, Paranjape, Richa, Kapur, Vignesh, Vilayanur Jayaraman, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Wheat is one of the most important food crops of the world. India is the second largest producer of wheat, currently producing 95 million tons from about 30 million hectares. Looking ahead to 2050, India needs to constantly increase production to about 150 million tons, to meet the rising population and demand. With area under cultivation having no room for growth, productivity will be the main pillar for growing production. Currently India?s yield of 3.1 t/ha has plenty room for growth as compared to the world leaders such as France (7.5 t/ha), Germany (7.3 t/ha) and UK (6.6 t/ha). Wheat productivity depends on multiple factors, seed being one of the most important.
The current operating environment is characterized by wheat R&D in the country conducted by public institutes, but there are clear signs of an emerging private sector involvement. The government promoting Inter-institutional linkages by way of associating private players in research and seed production.
This study evaluates and reflects on the current situation of the wheat seed sector in India - from research, variety/hybrid development, seed production, indent to distribution, the players involved, the challenges therein, upcoming technologies and the way forward.
Ravi P.,Singh, Julio, Huerta-Espino, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Aphids are major pests of wheat, able to cause up to 40% yield reduction solely due to direct feeding and up to 60% when feeding is combined with the transmission of viral diseases. Wheat resistance to aphids has proven to be effective in protecting yields and also in reducing the transmission rate of viral diseases. Moreover, aphid resistance is fundamental to reduce the negative impacts that the indiscriminate use of insecticides have on the environment and human health. In this study we report the results derived from the evaluation of 326 synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) derived lines against the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum [Rondai]). Primary SHWs were crossed with CIMMYT elite lines and further selected in the breeding pipeline. Therefore, such lines have acceptable agronomic characteristics for its further use in breeding programs. The 326 SHW derived lines were evaluated at seedling stage, in five augmented incomplete blocks, arranged in split-plots, with two treatments (infested vs. non-infested) and with resistant and susceptible checks replicated 16 times. The measured variables were chlorophyll content with a SPAD meter and a visual damage score in a scale 0-100 was also taken. Measurements were recorded when the susceptible check was dead due to aphid feeding. The evaluations were repeated two times for confirmation. Our results indicate the presence of genetic variation for S. graminum resistance. We identified about 4 % of the lines to carry high levels of resistance against this aphid. These lines are currently used in CIMMYT's bread wheat breeding program to incorporate the resistance in elite germplasm.
Kazakh National Agrarian University
Yerlan,Dutbayev, Alexei, Morgounov, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Kazakhstan is among the ten largest grain exporters in the world. Winter wheat in Kazakhstan is mainly cultivated in the southern and south-eastern regions on an area of 1.5-2 million hectares, including 140-170 thousand hectares - in irrigated lands. Annual losses of wheat yield from diseases can reach up to 30-40% or more. For Kazakhstan, the most dangerous diseases of winter wheat are stripe rust and leaf rust. Work is under way in Kazakhstan to find new donors for resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust and the use of these donors in breeding. The aim of this research was to expand genetic diversity through crosses and development of lines obtained by the method of remote hybridization, as well as selection of new sources of resistance of bread wheat to leaf rust and stripe rust in southeast Kazakhstan. The subject of the research were 49 hexaploidsynthtic lines of Kyoto University (Japan) and CIMMYT and commercial varieties of winter wheat in the Almaty region. We screened synthetic hexaploid wheat for resistance to diseases. A collection of hexaploid synthetic wheat lines resistant to the diseases and adapted to various conditions of the Almaty region has been established. The character of inheritance of resistance to diseases in crosses of synthetic wheat with local cultivars based on comparison of the first generation and parents was studied. Evaluation of phenotypes inheritance of resistance in hybrids in the generation of F2, showed that 9crosses of synthetic wheat(LANGDON/IG 48042//ZHETISU, LANGDON/IG 48042//FARABI, LANGDON/KU-20-8//AJARLY, LANGDON/KU-2075//AJARLY, LANGDON/KU-2097// ZHETISU, LANGDON/KU-2075//FARABI, LANGDON/KU-2100//STEKLOV, LANGDON/KU-2144//NAZ, LANGDON/KU-2076//NAZ)possess the dominant resistance genes to leaf rust.Seven lines(LANGDON/ KU-2075/AJARLY, LANGDON/KU-2075/FARABI, LANGDON/KU-2092/FARABI, LANGDON/KU-2100/NAZ, LANGDON/KU-2097/STEKLOVINDAYA, LANGDON/KU-2097/ZHETISU, LANGDON/KU-2097/ AJARLY) possess from one to several dominant resistance genes to stripe rust.
Mohammad,Kassem, Ghinwa, Lababedi, Naim, Al-Husien, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Leaf rust is the most common rust in wheat production areas of Syria and causes significant annual yield losses. Using genotypes with durable resistance is the most economical way of controlling the disease. One of the best-known leaf rust resistance genes is Lr46 that confers a slow rusting type of adult plant resistance. The main objective of this study was to identify Lr46 in durum wheat genotypes using morphological and molecular markers. Thirty-two durum wheat genotypes were evaluated for response to leaf rust at the seedling and adult plant stages. Twelve genotypes (37.5%) were resistant (R), 10 (31.25%) were moderately resistant (MR), seven (21.87%) were moderately susceptible (MS), and three (9.37%) were susceptible (S). Molecular marker analyses using SSR marker wmc44 showed that 16 genotypes (50%) carried Lr46/Yr29. The genotypes possessing the marker linked to Lr46/Yr29 could be used for selection of Lr46/Yr29 in breeding for slow rusting resistance in durum.
The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
Muhammad,Khan, Muhammad, Imtiaz, Zahoor, Swati, Annemarie, Justesen, Sajid, Ali, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis is an important disease in Pakistan. The population structure of P. striiformis in the North Eastern Himalayan region of Pakistan have been shown to be genotypically diverse with potential role of sexual recombination (Ali et al., 2014b), while lesser diversity in the Southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP)(Khan et al., 2015). This study was designed for the first time to assess disease status and analyze population structure of P. striiformis across three distant parts of Northwestern Pakistan i.e., Bajaur in North Western Agency and Swat and Buner in Malakand Agency, and was compared with other Pakistani populations. Depending on the intensity of infections caused by the pathogen in the tested varieties and breeding lines, the severity of the disease ranged from 5% to 100% during 2015. Yellow rust severity was the maximum on Morocco (100%), Gomal (100%) and KPWYT-18 (80%) and moderate on Ghanimat-e-IBGE (10%) and PS-2008, PS-2013, Tatara and Millat with 20% severity. A total of 81 single lesion samples collected on infected varieties were genotyped with 18 microsatellite markers. From these, 63 distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were detected; 15 single lesion samples collected from Buner produced 15 distinct MLGs signifying very high diversity. A high genotypic diversity with clear signature of recombination was detected across all the three locations. Buner (100%) had the maximum diversity followed by Swat (97%) and Bajaur (91%). The observed diversity was almost equal to other Northeastern Himalayan populations of Pakistan, while it was high when compared to some southern populations of KP (genotypic diversity of 0.895) and other worldwide clonal populations (Ali et al., 2014a). The high diversity and recombinant population structure suggested potential role of sexual reproduction in these areas, which needs to be further explored to establish the origin of diverse virulence pattern in Pakistan.
University of Seville
Solis,Ignacio, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Leaf rust is an important worldwide disease on wheat caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina. Great infections on durum wheat occurred in Southern Spain in the 2000s but diminished in recent years due to deployment of resistant varieties and application of fungicides by farmers. A leaf rust survey was carried out from the 2009-15 period to monitor the virulence spectrum of the prevailing pathotypes. A total of 84 leaf rust isolates were collected on durum wheat fields. From those, single culture were obtained and used to inoculate a set of 27 differential isolines of the susceptible variety Thatcher. In addition 8 durum varieties with known Lr genes were also included.
The main highlight is that the resistance conferred by the popular Lr14a gene was broke up in 2013, but since then virulence to this gene is not widespread. In total, 23% of the isolates were virulent to the lines containing Lr14a. Lr1, Lr3, Lr3bg, Lr16, Lr24, Lr26, and Lr28 are very effective. Lines carrying Lr2c, Lr10, Lr14b, Lr20, Lr23, and LrB displayed susceptibility to most isolates. The durum varieties Jupare (Lr27+Lr31), Guayacan (Lr61), Storlom (Lr3+) and Camayo (LrCam) are also resistant against all isolates tested. Diversification of Lr genes is needed in the coming varieties to delay the appearance of new virulent races.
Research centre SELTON
Alena,Hanzalova, Jaroslav, Matyk, Pavel, Bartos, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
In the Czech Republic all three rust species on wheat occur. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) can be found almost everywhere, and it can cause yield losses up to 40% mainly in warmer parts of the country in South Moravia.
Yellow rust, typical for cooler climate, occurred in relatively long time intervals. However in 2013 new pathotypes tolerating higher temperatures occurred and caused yield losses. In 2016 yellow rust incidence was lower, being still important in Moravia, where yellow rust occurred already in previous years.
Stem rust incidence was very rare in the last years. However in Germany, outbreaks and new pathotypes (e.g. Digalu) of stem rust in 2013 were recorded and comeback of stem rust to Central Europe can be expected.
Rust control consists of chemical control and especially of breeding for resistance, that aims at combined resistance to all three rusts. On the scale 9 high resistance, 1 high susceptibility average 4 year rating (2013-2016) of the tested cultivars was 6.4 for yellow rust, 5.7 for leaf rust and 6.2 for stem rust.
"Triple rust resistance" was recorded in spring wheat LOTTE and winter wheat line SG-S 1684 13, high resistance to yellow rust and stem rust in the cultivar Steffi. Resistance to all three rusts of 14 winter wheat cultivars and 12 breeding lines from the Plant Breeding Station-Stupice is summarized on separate tables and described in the text.
National Plant Protection Center
Thinlay (PhD),, Ugyen, Yangchen, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Wheat rusts are the important fungal diseases that limit the production and downgrade wheat quality. There are three types of wheat rusts; stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. The study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of Bhutanese wheat cultivars and differential lines to rust diseases at mid and low altitudes. The study was conducted in Mendagang for mid altitude (1,332 masl) and Samtenling for low altitude (378 masl) from December 2016 to March 2017. The experiment followed Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with 15 treatments (wheat lines) and three replications. However, only 11 lines germinated in both locations. Disease assessments were performed approximately at 60, 90 and 120 days after sowing following the modified Cobb?s disease rating scale. Only leaf rust was observed and the disease incidence ranged from 2.5 to 10% and 2.5 to 16% at mid and low altitudes respectively. Disease severity of 5 to 20%, corresponding to field response of immune to moderately resistant was observed at mid altitude; while 5 to 100% with immune to susceptible field response was observed at low altitude. There was a significant difference in disease incidence by site (p=.038) but not in disease severity (p=.129). The study also revealed that disease severity was positively correlated (r=.359); (r=.034); with mean minimum and maximum temperature respectively and (r=.361) with mean minimum relative humidity. All the correlations were highly significant (p=.003). The study found that ICARDA line 1 with severity (100%) was highly susceptible (100S) to leaf rust at low altitude while Bajosokha kaa remain an immune in both the locations. The results indicate that leaf rust can occur in both low and mid altitudes; however selection of suitable lines requires more extensive studies.