Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Makpal Atishova, Aygul Madenova, Kanat Galymbek, Jenis Keyshilov, Hafiz Muminjanov, Alexey Morgounov
Wheat rust diseases are a major cause of yield losses of this crop. Yellow (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) rust is of the most widespread and dangerous disease of wheat and is the major factor that adversely affects wheat yield and quality. The use of genetic host resistance is the most effective, economical and environmentally safe method of controlling stripe rust that allows elimination of fungicides and minimize crop losses from this disease. Due to the threat of the development of epiphytoties of rust disease it is necessary to identify new donors of resistance to yellow rust and to develop resistant wheat breeding material. In the present study, attention was drawn to the effective yellow rust resistance genes Yr5, Yr10 and Yr15, which were identified in the process of molecular screening of wheat germplasm. Genetic analysis using S23M41 molecular marker linked to Yr5 revealed the presence of this gene in 17 out of 136 promising lines. Thirteen genotypes screened with Xbarc8 generated the DNA fragment associated with Yr15. Three advanced lines with Yr10 were identified using the SCAR marker. Three lines carrying two Yr genes (Yr5 and Yr15) were detected. Combination of Yr5 and Yr10 were found in 15 wheat lines. We identified a number of wheat genotypes highly resistant to stripe rust, which could be further evaluated to release new resistant varieties or to be used in the breeding program.
Jamal El Haddoury, Ahmed Amri
Malika', a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed using doubled haploid technology by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Morocco, and tested as 06DHBW48, was approved for release in 2016 by the Office National de S?curit? Sanitaire des Produits Alimentaires (ONSSA), Morocco. Malika was selected from the doubled haploids derived from the cross 'Achtar3*//'Kanz'/Ks85-8-4). Achtar and Kanz are Moroccan varieties originating from segregating populations from CIMMYT. Achtar and Kanz are a well adapted to Moroccan conditions but susceptible to the Hessian fly, yellow rusts and some races of leaf rust. 'Achtar' was crossed with it in order to incorporate the Hessian fly resistance, yellow rust resistance and leaf rust resistance and 'Achtar' was crossed with Kanz/Ks85-8-4 having resistance to Hessian fly, yellow rust and leaf rust. Backcrossed 3 times with 'Achtar', and selected lines having resistance to the Hessian fly, yellow rust and leaf rust from the population derived from each backcross. Finally the selected the resistant line was used develop doubled haploids. The doubled haploid lines produced were tested in the laboratory and field for Hessian fly and the rust resistance. The resistant lines were incorporated in the multi-local yield trials and three promising lines with the resistance to Hessian fly, yellow rust and leaf rust and better yield and quality were submitted for registration in the official catalog in 2014. After 2 years of testing (years 2014-15 and 2015-16), one line (06DHBW48) was accepted for the registration and designated as 'Malika'. 'Malika' is a semi-dwarf variety, well adapted to semi-arid regions, early maturing, high yielding, tolerant to drought and resistant to Hessian fly, leaf rust and yellow rust.
James Winans, Julian Garcia, Kellie Damann, Gary Bergstrom
In addition to causing Fusarium head blight of wheat and other cereals, Fusarium graminearum is associated with dozens of wild or weedy grass species. Their role in the disease cycle and evolution of the pathogen has not been established despite their widespread distribution. A three-year survey of wild grasses in New York (USA) found that inflorescences and overwintered stems were frequently colonized by F. graminearum. Through a series of controlled laboratory experiments, wheat and five common grass species were compared for their potential to support inoculum production. Artificially infested stem tissue from several grasses both retained F. graminearum at higher rates through a single winter and supported greater ascospore production per dry gram than wheat. Susceptibility of these species to root and crown rot was measured with a modified seed germination assay and a diverse panel of F. graminearum isolates. Differences were seen between host species, and some grasses were resistant to infection. Our results indicate that wild grass species may support significant F. graminearum inoculum production while differing in their suitability for root and crown colonization. Studying interactions between F. graminearum and alternative host plants can improve our understanding of evolution in a broad host range pathogen and our ability to predict the risk of crop epidemics. We are currently evaluating isolates collected from wild grasses for mycotoxin production and aggressiveness on wheat.
Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Ghulam Mahboob Subhani, Makhdoom Hussain, Mehvish Makhdoom
Rust is the single largest factor limiting wheat production in Pakistan. According to the FAO reports, countries in the predicted immediate pathway of Ug99 grow more than 65 million hectares of wheat, accounting for about 25% of global wheat harvest.
Rice, a member of the same family (Poaceae) is not attacked by any rusts. Wheat, an allo-hexaploid is responsive for wide crossing. It has previously been successfully crossed with its several wild relatives and different other crop species like corn, pearl millet etc. Based on the above facts wheat ? wild rice crossing has been attempted to incorporate rust resistance from rice to wheat. Successful crosses were made under in-vitro conditions. Surviving plantlets developed from these crosses were assayed for any genetic material introgressed from rice. Different cytological / molecular techniques were used to detect the introgression (Squash preparations from root tips, FISH, GISH, SSR etc.). Two hundred and fifty primers specific to rice chromatin were used to look for the introgression of rice chromatin into hybrids. Seven primers amplified the fragments in hybrids indicating the possible introgression of rice chromatin in wheat x rice hybrids but in-situ hybridization didn't confirm that introgression. So further testing of these hybrids is needed.
ICAR-IIWBR, Regional Station, Flowerdale,Shimla 171002 H.P. India
Pramod Prasad, OmPrakash Gangwar, Hanif Khan, Siddanna Savadi, Subodh Kumar
Stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) (Pgt) epidemics have been reported from many wheat growing areas of the world. Stem rust races with virulence to Sr31 (Ug99 type races),are a threat to wheat producing African countries. Currently 11 different variants of the Ug99 lineage have been reported from different countries. Despite no report of Ug99 variants from any of the South Asian countries, the efforts are in place to counter the possible introduction of virulent wheat stem rust races. Stem rust surveillance has been a major component of the rust resistance breeding worldwide. This study reports virulence phenotypes and functional SSR marker based genotypes among stem rust collections in the Indian subcontinent during 2009 to 2015.
Wheat stem rust samples were analyzed on differential sets used for pathotype identification in India. Twelve pathotypes of Pgt were identified in a total of 574 samples analyzed. Pgt pathotypes 40A and 11 were identified in 36% and 32% of the samples, respectively. The stem rust resistance genes Sr7a, Sr26, Sr27, Sr31, Sr32, Sr33, Sr39, Sr40, Sr43, SrTmp and SrTt3 were found to confer resistance to the field population identified during this period. The analysis of SSR marker genotypes data revealed a high degree of variability in the Pgt population, with mean gene diversity and polymorphic information content (PIC) values of 0.56 and 0.50, respectively. STRUCTURE software divided the Pgt populations in to four subpopulations with some admixtures. The FST values of pairs of subpopulations ranged from 0.35 to 0.93 which indicated that the four sub-populations were significantly differentiated. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) determined that 16%, 69% and 15% of the totl variation was between population, among and within individuals, respectively. The information generated here could be a useful guide for resistance breeding and gene deployment programmes for saving South Asian wheat from stem rust.
Nepal Agriculture Research Council, Nepal
Dipendra Pokharel, Thakur Prasad Tiwari, Mahesh Gathala, Hari Krishna Shrestha
Conservation agricultural practices have been found to be climate and labor smart, and sustainable, agricultural production technologies. The decline in productivity, increase in the cost of cultivation, labor intensive practice affected the cereal based farming system in Nepal particularly at the Indo-Gangetic plains. SRFSI has been working in response to concerns about the sustainability of the cereal based farming system at Sunsari and Dhanusha district of Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the adoption and scaling up of conservation agriculture in addition to input usage, production, net profit, B:C ratio, labour use, etc. of CA practice in Sunsari district, eastern Indo-Gangetic plains of Nepal. The study employed structured questionnaires survey and key informant survey as the main data collection tools. Project reports were taken as secondary data. The primary data related for the semi-annual report and annual report of the SRFSI project were collected jointly by the DADO, Sunsari and RARST, Tarahara. Study revealed that farmers had several tangible advantages and getting higher productivity through these practices. This study assessed the potential of CA based practices in Rice-Wheat and Rice-Maize farming system to improve the yields, net profit for sustainability of the cereal based farming system.
International Center for Agriculture Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA)
ahmad amri, El-Haddoury Jamal
Constant climatic change and rapid evolution of diseases and pests have created challenges for plant breeders to find novel sources of resistance within cultivated gene pool. However wild (alien) relatives of crops still carries many promising resistance genes to biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant breeders around the world have successfully attempted to recover some of the beneficial genetic diversity lost (or never included) during the domestication and crop improvement process by crossing cultivated varieties with wild species to introgressed many valuable genes into crops like wheat and barley. This pre-breeding attempt to regain the genetic diversity of crops based on crop wild relatives (CWR) had been started at ICARDA 1994. Furthermore, The Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT) recently provided a grant to ICARDA within the Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) project to strengthen the research on use of genetic resources in pre-breeding of barley and grass pea. The pre-breeding activity in barley is focused on transferring genes of resistance to complex diseases and pests (scald, spot blotch and barley gall midge), improving tolerance to drought, heat and salinity, and enhancing the nutritional value through improving Iron and Zinc concentrations and amylases activity. Crosses were made between wild barely H. Vulgare X cultivated barley H. Vulgare subsp. H. spontaneum. The main objective of pre-breeding in Grasspea is transferring genes of low or no ?-ODAP from crossable species L. cicera and L. amphicarpus, L. tingitanus, L. aphaca, L. odoratus, L. sphaericus, L. nissolia, and L. aureus. Interspecific crosses were made between L. sativus x L.cicera followed by embryo rescue. Currently all the pre-breeding lines with targeted traits are under screening against the respective selection pressures using precision phenotyping..
USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory
Maria Ordonez, Silvia German, Kun Xiao, Amy Fox, Maricelis Acevedo
The leaf rust pathogen, Puccinia triticina is widespread across all major wheat growing regions worldwide. Collections of P. triticina were obtained from common and durum wheat in North America, South America, Europe, South Africa, the Middle East, East Africa, Russia, Central Asia, China, Pakistan and New Zealand in order to determine the genetic diversity within each region and genetic relationship between regions. A total of 831 single uredinial isolates were characterized for virulence to isogenic lines of Thatcher wheat and for molecular genotype at 23 SSR loci. The isolates in East Africa and Europe were the most diverse for the average number of effective alleles per locus, while the populations in Russia and North America were the least diverse. The isolates in Europe and South America had the highest number of multilocus genotypes of 81 and 75, respectively, and were the most diverse for Shannon's genotypic diversity. All populations had significantly higher levels of Ho compared to He at individual SSR loci, and had highly significant values of Ia and rd which indicated clonal reproduction. Europe had the highest number of distinct SSR genotype groups with eight, and Russia had only two SSR groups. The populations in North America and South America; Russia and Central Asia; the Middle East and East Africa; were closely related for SSR genotype based on Nei's genetic distance. Based on k means clustering and DAPC of SSR genotypes, isolates virulent to durum wheat were placed into a single separate group, and isolates virulent to common wheat were placed into five other groups. Twenty-seven SSR genotypes were found in different continental regions. Isolates with identical or highly related SSR genotypes also had identical or similar virulence, which indicated historical and current migration of P. triticina worldwide.
Sathguru Management Consultants
Venugopal Chintada, Vijay Paranjape, Mansi Naithani, Aishwarya Vardhan
Nepal is an important wheat producer country in the South Asian region; with wheat being the third most important crop in the country after paddy (rice) and maize. Additionally, high-quality, disease free, processed seed is vital to establishing food security in South Asia. The Agriculture and Forestry University or AFU, located in the fertile Chitwan region of Nepal, is the only agriculture university catering to the needs of the Terai region and has the capability to provide innovative wheat seed solutions for small wheat-growing farmers. In the Delivering Genetic Gain Project or DGGW, the AFU has an active involvement in seed production, processing, and distribution. These activities play a major role in human capacity building in the country involving women empowerment, whole family participation in varietal selection and entrepreneurship for sustainable livelihood and overall development. Currently, under the DGGW?s Innovative Seed System in Nepal, AFU produces and aggregates seeds from farmers in the area and process it through a new seed processing unit, which is a cost-efficient version of machines commonly seen in larger agricultural facilities. At full capacity, the unit can operate up to 18 hours a day and process one ton of seed per hour. The unit it is also capable of processing rice and maize during other cropping seasons. By March 2017, more than 200 farmers applied to be part of the inaugural cohort of farmers trained in producing disease free wheat seed. The inaugural wheat season for the Seed Systems for Nepal Initiative has concluded successfully, with a total of 14 metric tons of disease-free wheat seed processed. The DGGW Seeds Systems for Nepal Initiative envisions to increase the number of empowered farmers next season, which commences on November, 2017.
Genetic Resources Institute, Azerbaijan
N. Aminov, A. Jahangirov, H. Hamidov, Aigul Abugalieva, Vladmir Shamanin, Alexey Morgunov
Hexaploid synthetics have become widely used in bread wheat improvement in recent years, enabling the introduction of specific traits as well as enhancing genetic diversity and development of valuable germplasm. This study demonstrated the difference between two groups of primary synthetics in terms of development rate, plant height, rust reactions, and productivity components. During 2015 and 2016, three groups of synthetics were studied in Azerbaijan (3 sites): Baku (0 masl) under irrigated conditions, Gobustan (850 masl) under dry rainfed conditions and Ujar (20 masl) under irrigated conditions with high salinity. Germplasm was also evaluated for diseases and agronomic traits in Omsk (Russia) in 2016.
All primary synthetics were resistant to leaf rust, several to stem rust, and few to stripe rust. Stripe rust occurred in all years at all sites, proving its importance as major wheat pathogen. Its severity reached intermediate levels in Baku in 2016 (33.7%) and in Gobustan in 2015 (26.8%), and epidemic level in Gobustan in 2016 (72.7%). Gobustan also experienced high levels of stem rust in 2016. These two diseases substantially reduced grain productivity in Gobustan in 2016, especially 1000 kernel weight (30.2 g) and grain weight per spike (1.17 g). . Superior genotypes from all three groups were identified that combine high expression of spike productivity traits and stress tolerance index. Five superior synthetics were selected from each of the three groups, based on grain weight per spike. Only four of these demonstrated resistance to stripe rust (entries 13, 15, 31, and 32). Japanese synthetics (group 3) were susceptible to stripe rust but all demonstrated resistance to stem rust. Synthetics from groups 1 and 3 were all resistant to leaf rust when tested under severe disease pressure in Omsk in 2016.